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Table 1 Pharmacists perspectives about challenges and barriers related to pharmaceutical care services in developing countries

From: Enhancing pharmacists’ role in developing countries to overcome the challenge of antimicrobial resistance: a narrative review

Authors Country Setting Study design Participants Objectives of the study Outcomes of the study
Yu Fang et al., 2011 [23] China Community Questionnaire based survey Pharmacists To explore the perceptions of community pharmacists towards the concept of pharmaceutical care, and barriers to implementation of pharmaceutical care in China Lack of external conditions for developing or providing pharmaceutical care, lack of time and skills, absence of information and economic incentive, and lack of full support from other health professionals.
Hashmi et al., 2017 [24] Pakistan Community Semi-structured interview - qualitative Pharmacists To explore knowledge, perception and attitude of community pharmacists about extended pharmaceutical services in the city of Lahore, Pakistan Lack of personal knowledge, poor public awareness, inadequate physician-pharmacist collaboration and deprived salary structures
Kho et al., 2017 [26] Malaysia Community Semi-structured interview - qualitative Pharmacists To obtain in-depth information on the provision of professional pharmacy services by community pharmacies in Sarawak, Malaysia Lack of time, personnel and physical space constrained services provision, cultural issues, lack of committed customers, stock availability and price issues
Sancar et al., 2013 [25] Turkey Community Questionnaire based survey Pharmacists To assess Turkish community pharmacists’ points of view about pharmaceutical care practice in Turkey Lack of knowledge of drugs and disease states, lack of technical knowledge of how to provide pharmaceutical care practice, lack of communication with physicians and stationary workload
Bilal et al., 2017 [27] Ethiopia Hospital Cross-sectional survey Pharmacists To assess the status, challenges and way forward of clinical pharmacy services in Ethiopia Shortage of staff, lack of awareness, lack of support from management, hospital setup, incentives, and gaps in the curriculum
Salim et al., 2016 [28] Sudan Hospital Exploratory corss-sectional study Pharmacists To explore the self-perception of clinical pharmacists of their impact on healthcare in Khartoum State, Sudan Shortage of pharmacy staff, lack of support from health authorities, lack of training and educational program, lack of job descriptions, lack of specific area in patient files for clinical pharmacist intervention, and low salaries
AbuRuzet al., 2012 [30] Jordan Community Questionnaire based survey Pharmacists To study about the role of community pharmacists in Jordan Lack of pharmaceutical care training, lack of access to medical files, lack of space, physicians’ acceptance, communication with physicians and lack of local data
El Hajj et al., 2016 [32] Qatar All areas Cross-sectional survey Pharmacists To examine the extent of pharmaceutical care practice and the barriers to pharmaceutical care provision as perceived by Qatar pharmacists Inadequate training in pharmaceutical care, lack of documentation skills, lack of pharmaceutical care role models, insufficient opportunity for interaction with other health care providers, inconvenient access to patient medical records, insufficient staff and lack of privacy, time, space
Katoue et al., 2014 [31] Kuwait Hospital Cross-sectional survey Pharmacists To investigate hospital pharmacists’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait Lack of private counselling areas, organizational obstacles, inadequate staff, lack of pharmacist time and adequate technology
Farina et al., 2009 [29] Brazil Community Questionnaire based survey Pharmacists To learn about the professional practice of the pharmacists who work in pharmacies and their knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceutical care Lack of time, of support from the pharmacy owner, and patient’s disinterest