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Table 3 Validity comparisons for Google Trends to detect MRSA outbreaks with SO-ZI/AMR as the reference standard. Day 0 indicates the day the outbreak was reported to SO-ZI/AMR

From: Social media posts and online search behaviour as early-warning system for MRSA outbreaks

Day Any MRSA outbreak MRSA outbreak in hospital
AUC (95% CI) Optimal cutoffa Se Sp AUC (95% CI) Optimal cutoffa Se Sp
−7 0.61 (0.54–0.69) −0.2018 75 47 0.59 (0.51–0.67) − 0.6507 100 23
−6 0.51 (0.44–0.59) − 0.1208 63 51 0.51 (0.42–0.59) −0.6965 93 21
−5 0.46 (0.38–0.55) −0.4318 71 33 0.48 (0.39–0.58) −0.8801 97 13
−4 0.50 (0.42–0.58) −0.5524 81 28 0.53 (0.44–0.62) −0.5524 87 28
−3 0.46 (0.38–0.54) −0.5377 81 29 0.48 (0.39–0.58) −0.5377 87 29
−2 0.52 (0.44–0.61) 0.1445 42 65 0.47 (0.37–0.57) −0.6828 83 21
−1 0.59 (0.50–0.67) 0.0425 60 61 0.59 (0.47–0.71) 0.0672 67 62
0 0.59 (0.51–0.67) −0.5524 90 28 0.63 (0.54–0.73) 0.3316 43 79
+ 1 0.54 (0.46–0.63) −0.1769 63 48 0.49 (0.39–0.59) −1.1493 100 7
+ 2 0.49 (0.41–0.57) − 1.1833 100 6 0.46 (0.36–0.55) −0.9484 97 11
+3 0.50 (0.43–0.58) −0.5149 79 29 0.56 (0.46–0.66) −0.1118 63 51
+ 4 0.49 (0.41–0.57) −0.6828 90 21 0.49 (0.40–0.59) −0.6828 93 21
+ 5 0.44 (0.37–0.51) 0.1674 15 65 0.39 (0.31–0.47) −1.3370 100 4
+ 6 0.49 (0.42–0.57) − 1.0128 98 9 0.47 (0.38–0.57) −1.0128 97 9
+ 7 0.53 (0.45–0.60) −0.4993 85 30 0.50 (0.40–0.61) − 0.5745 83 27
  1. AUC area under the curve, CI confidence interval, Se sensitivity, Sp specificity
  2. aMaximizes sensitivity+specificity. Value represents k