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Table 2 Percentage of weighted average compliance with each one of the steps of the WHO technique for surgical hand preparation according to the study phase and product employed

From: Alcohol-based surgical hand preparation: translating scientific evidence into clinical practice

Compliance with each one of the steps of the WHO technique for surgical hand preparation Pre-intervention phase
(n = 303)
Intervention phase
(n = 231)
P-Valuec
Surgical scrub with 2% chlorhexidine (%)
(n = 180)a
Surgical scrub with 10% PVPI (%)
(n = 123)b
Alcohol-based surgical hand preparation (%)
(n = 231)b
Removed jewelry 99.4 100 100 1.000
Short nails 95 100 97.8 0.341
Finger 96.6 95.9 98.2 0.762
Palm 100 100 99 0.157
Back of hand 96.6 97.4 98.2 0.946
Interdigital space 82.1 85.5 93 0.948
Thumb 85.7 87.2 96.9 0.052
Wrist 95.5 98.3 99.1 0.247
Did not get back to hands after donning forearms 13.5 18 NA NA
Nail scrubbing 33.7 41.5 NA NA
Hands rinsing 98.8 72.3 NA NA
Time (min) 4.8 4.9 2.7 0.001
  1. NA not applicable
  2. aThe number of surgical hand preparation events observed per participant ranged from 1 to 24
  3. bThe number of surgical hand preparation events observed per participant ranged from 1 to 16
  4. cComparison between the pre-intervention and intervention phases by the Wilcoxon for paired samples test