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Table 1 Patient characteristics and univariable and multivariable logistic regression using generalized estimating equation for evaluation of risk factors for ESC-R in patients with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Swiss NHs between 2007 and 2016

From: Antibiotic resistance in Swiss nursing homes: analysis of National Surveillance Data over an 11-year period between 2007 and 2017

  ESC-S ESC-R Univariable Multivariable
  n = 9′093 n = 1′339 Row %a OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Sex      0.03   0.003
 Female 7′436 1′063 12.5 ref. ref.
 Male 1′657 276 14.3 1.4 (1.0–1.9) 1.6 (1.2–2.1)
Age in years
  < 70 713 110 13.4 ref.   
 70–85 5′479 799 12.7 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.60   
  > 85 2′901 430 12.9 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.74   
Region
 French/Italian speaking 6′407 1′037 13.9 ref.   ref.  
 German speaking 2′686 302 10.1 0.5 (0.4–0.7) <.0001 0.5 (0.4–0.7) <.0001
Site
 Urogenital 8′788 1′286 12.8 ref.   
 Other 305 53 14.8 1.4 (0.7–2.5) 0.34   
Species
E. coli 7′396 1′211 14.1 ref.   ref.  
K. pneumoniae 1′697 128 7.0 0.2 (0.1–0.3) <.0001 0.2 (0.1–0.3) <.0001
  1. Abbreviations: ESC-R Extended-spectrum beta-lactam resistant, ESC-S Extended-spectrum beta-lactam susceptible, NH Nursing Home, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, ref Reference
  2. Significant P values are in bold and non-significant ones (P ≥ 0.05) are not in bold
  3. aESC-R/(ESC-S + ESC-R)