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Table 2 Clinical Characteristics of Study Patients by the Detection of Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative Bacteria (MDRGNB) in Either Surveillance of Clinical Culture during Index Hospitalization

From: Risk for subsequent infection and mortality after hospitalization among patients with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization or infection

Characteristics MDRGNB culture positive group (n = 125) MDRGNB culture negative group (n = 692) p-value
Age, mean ± SD (year) 71.5 ± 14.8 64.1 ± 17.7 < 0.001
Male sex 76 (60.8) 399 (57.7) 0.51
LTCF or nursing-home residence 20 (16.0) 18 (2.6) < 0.001
Long-term hemodialysis 7 (5.6) 17 (2.5) 0.06
Previous MDRGNB isolationa 44 (35.2) 27 (3.9) < 0.001
Co-morbid medical conditions
 Diabetes mellitus 31 (24.8) 188 (27.2) 0.58
 Malignancy 28 (22.4) 173 (25.0) 0.53
 End-stage renal disease 7 (5.6) 24 (3.5) 0.25
 Liver cirrhosis 7 (5.6) 72 (10.4) 0.09
 Congestive heart failure 19 (15.2) 59 (8.5) 0.019
 COPD 22 (17.6) 60 (8.7) 0.002
 Cerebrovascular accident 37 (29.6) 88 (12.7) < 0.001
 Bed-ridden status 61 (48.8) 108 (15.6) < 0.001
 Presence of pressure sore 17 (13.6) 28 (4.1) < 0.001
 Central vascular catheterb 13 (10.4) 44 (6.4) 0.10
 Long-term urinary catheter 18 (14.4) 37 (5.4) < 0.001
Charlson comorbidity index, mean ± SD 3.8 ± 2.6 2.8 ± 2.7 < 0.001
High CCI (≥5) 47 (37.6) 174 (25.1) 0.004.
Index hospitalization treatment
 Antibiotics exposurec 115 (92.0) 471 (68.1) < 0.001
  3rd or 4th generation cephalosporin 52 (41.6) 156 (22.5) < 0.001
  Ampicillin-sulbactam 42 (33.6) 180 (26.0) 0.08
  Piperacillin-tazobactam 41 (32.8) 77 (11.3) < 0.001
  Carbapenem 21 (16.8) 18 (2.6) < 0.001
  Fluoroquinolone 22 (17.6) 51 (7.4) < 0.001
  Aminoglycoside 4 (3.2) 6 (0.9) 0.05
 ICU admission 14 (11.2) 21 (3.0) < 0.001
 Receiving of tracheal intubation 14 (11.2) 15 (2.2) < 0.001
 Length of hospital stay, median ± IRQ 19.0 ± 22.0 9.0 ± 12.0 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, MDRGNB multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, ICU intensive care unit, IRQ interquartile range
  2. aWithin 1 year prior to the index hospitalization
  3. bIncluding Port-A catheter, Hickman catheter, permcath catheter, double-lumen catheter, and peripherally inserted central catheter
  4. cIncluding oral and intravenous antibiotic exposure for > 48 h during index hospitalization