Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Patient characteristics and patient outcome pre- and post-implementation of interventions, per intervention group and specialty

From: The effect of antibiotic stewardship interventions with stakeholder involvement in hospital settings: a multicentre, cluster randomized controlled intervention study

  Pulmonary medicine Period Infectious diseases Period Gastroenterology Period Audit with feedback Period Academic detailing Period Control (all three specialities) Period
Pre N = 427 n (%) Post N = 162 n (%) p-value Pre N = 424 n (%) Post N = 153 n (%) p-value Pre N = 78 n (%) Post N = 39 n (%) p-value Pre N = 478 n (%) Post N = 182 n (%) p-value Pre N = 451 n (%) Post N = 172 n (%) p-value Pre N = 350 n (%) Post N = 169 n (%) p-value
Age (mean - years) 69.6 68.99 0.66 67.5 64.4 0.10 68.9 64.8 0.35 67.1 66.1 0.51 70.2 67.1 0.05 63.2 65.7 0.22
Sex
 Female 213 (49.9) 88 (54.3) 0.34 180 (42.5) 80 (52.3) 0.04 37 (47.4) 16 (41.0) 0.51 221 (46.2) 101 (55.5) 0.03 209 (46.3) 83 (48.3) 0.67 167 (47.7) 80 (47.3) 0.94
 Male 214 (50.1) 74 (45.7)   244 (57.5) 73 (47.7)   41 (52.6) 23 (59)   257 (53.8) 81 (44.5)   242 (53.7) 89 (51.7)   183 (52.3) 89 (52.7)  
Admitted from hospital/nursing home 55 (12.9) 15 (9.3) 0.23 68 (16.0) 30 (19.7) 0.30 14 (18.0) 3 (7.7) 0.14 67 (14.0) 20 (11.0) 0.30 70 (15.5) 28 (16.4) 0.79 51 (14.6) 23 (13.6) 0.75
Indication for antibiotic treatment
 Pneumonia 136 (31.9) 63 (38.9) 0.20 115 (27.1) 45 (29.6) 0.06 11 (14.1) 3 (7.7) 0.16 162 (33.9) 67 (36.8) 0.01 100 (22.2) 44 (25.7) 0.15 65 (18.7) 23 (13.6) 0.31
 COPD exacerbation, infectious 183 (42.9) 63 (38.9)   59 (13.9) 7 (4.6)   1 (1.3) 2 (5.1)   132 (27.6) 34 (18.7)   111 (24.6) 38 (22.2)   25 (7.2) 15 (8.9)  
 LRTI - Other 23 (5.4) 9 (5.6)   16 (3.7) 6 (3.95)   6 (7.7) 2 (5.1)   19 (4.0) 4 (2.2)   26 (5.8) 13 (7.6)   22 (6.3) 7 (4.1)  
 Sepsis 40 (9.4) 17 (10.5)   61 (14.4) 24 (15.8)   16 (20.5) 5 (12.8)   57 (11.9) 26 (14.3)   60 (13.3) 20 (11.7)   73 (21.0) 50 (29.6)  
 Skin and soft tissue 3 (0.7) 2 (1.2)   62 (14.6) 33 (21.7)   9 (11.5) 6 (15.4)   31 (6.5) 25 (13.7)   43 (9.5) 16 (9.4)   58 (16.7) 22 (13.0)  
 Gastrointestinal tract 1 (0.2) 0 (0)   9 (2.12) 4 (2.6)   9 (11.5) 11 (28.2)   6 (1.3) 2 (1.1)   13 (2.8) 13 (7.6)   35 (10.1) 14 (8.3)  
 Urinary tract 9 (2.1) 5 (3.1)   75 (17.7) 21 (13.8)   17 (21.8) 9 (23.1)   31 (6.5) 16 (8.8)   70 (15.5) 19 (11.1)   36 (10.3) 19 (11.2)  
 Other 32 (7.5) 3 (1.9)   27 (6.4) 12 (7.9)   9 (11.5) 1 (2.6)   40 (8.4) 8 (4.4)   28 (6.2) 8 (4.7)   34 (9.8) 19 (11.2)  
Antibiotic allergies 62 (14.5) 28 (17.3) 0.41 35 (8.3) 19 (12.4) 0.13 8 (10.3) 4 (10.3) 0.99 59 (12.3) 26 (14.3) 0.51 46 (10.2) 25 (14.5) 0.13 25 (7.2) 17 (10.1) 0.18
Patient outcomes ∆
 Length of stay (days) 7.2 6.9 0.40 6.5 6.5 0.99 7.0 6.1 0.30 7.2 6.5 0.04 6.5 6.8 0.41 7.5 6.8 0.11
 In-hospital mortality 30 (7.0) 7 (4.3) 0.23 12 (2.8) 4 (2.61) 0.89 3 (3.9) 2 (5.13) 0.76 28 (5.9) 9 (5.0) 0.65 17 (3.8) 4 (2.3) 0.37 13 (3.7) 3 (1.8) 0.23
 30-day mortality 53 (12.4) 11 (6.8) 0.05 30 (7.1) 8 (5.3) 0.44 3 (3.9) 4 (10.3) 0.17 50 (10.5) 12 (6.6) 0.13 36 (8.0) 11 (6.4) 0.51 24 (6.9) 6 (3.6) 0.13
 30-day readmission 117 (29.3) 38 (24.5) 0.26 78 (19.1) 18 (12.2) 0.06 16 (21.3) 6 (17.1) 0.61 111 (24.6) 36 (20.9) 0.33 100 (23.1) 26 (15.7) 0.04 58 (17.5) 30 (18.6) 0.75
  1. p-values are obtained by chi-square test (categorical variables) and t-test (continuous variables) per group
  2. ∆ Patient outcomes were also tested for interaction between intervention groups/specialty and period using linear and logistic regression. p-value interaction length of stay = 0.080. p-value interaction 30-day readmission = 0.105