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Table 5 Interrupted time series analysis of the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in defined daily doses per 100 bed days for intervention and control groups from 2013 to 2015

From: The effect of antibiotic stewardship interventions with stakeholder involvement in hospital settings: a multicentre, cluster randomized controlled intervention study

  Audit with feedback (Intervention wards) Academic detailing (Intervention wards Pulmonary medicine (Intervention wards) Infectious diseases (Intervention wards) Gastroenterology (Intervention ward) Control (all specialties)
Estimate SE p-value Estimate SE p-value Estimate SE p-value Estimate SE p-value Estimate SE p-value Estimate SE p-value
DDD per 100 bed days Const 70.288 5.854 0.000 103.078 8.415 0.000 84.736 5.056 0.000 60.371 7.407 0.000 27.605 1.592 0.000 87.691 5.387 0.000
AR −0.495 0.326 0.172 −0.247 0.370 0.525 −0.429 0.348 0.257 −0.239 0.372 0.542 −0.796 0.203 0.006 −0.512 0.323 0.157
Pre-slope   4.332 1.523 0.025 −2.903 2.181 0.225 −2.292 1.312 0.124 3.985 1.926 0.077 −0.075 0.411 0.861 1.002 1.404 0.498
Difference between pre- and post-slope   −6.789 2.028 0.012 2.920 2.985 0.360 −0.669 1.770 0.717 −5.753 2.615 0.064 2.472 0.545 0.003 −1.033 1.863 0.597
Level effect
 3 months   −8.971 7.809 0.288 −3.162 11.053 0.783 8.314 6.686 0.254 −10.360 9.839 0.327 −11.157 2.082 0.001 1.407 7.191 0.850
 6 months   −15.761 8.313 0.100 −0.242 11.823 0.984 7.646 7.131 0.319 −16.112 10.503 0.169 −8.685 2.220 0.006 0.374 7.672 0.962
 12 months   −29.338 10.490 0.027 5.599 15.115 0.722 6.308 9.052 0.508 −27.617 13.357 0.077 −3.740 2.811 0.225 −1.691 9.694 0.866
 18 months   −42.916 13.561 0.016 11.439 19.708 0.580 4.971 11.751 0.685 −39.122 17.355 0.059 1.205 3.640 0.750 −3.757 12.525 0.773
  1. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were defined as penicillins with enzyme inhibitor, 2. and 3. generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and quionolones