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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients with community-acquired (CA), healthcare-associated (HCA), and nosocomial K. pneumoniae bacteremia

From: Clinical characteristics, antimicrobial resistance and capsular types of community-acquired, healthcare-associated, and nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia

Variable CA (n = 70) HCA (n = 102) Nosocomial (n = 165) p value
CA vs. HCA HCA vs. Nosocomial CA vs. Nosocomial
Demographics
 Age, (Mean ± SD), years 71.43 ± 13.64 72.37 ± 14.39 67.71 ± 16.32 0.696 0.031 0.122
 Gender, male 37 (52.9) 70 (68.6) 95 (57.6) 0.036 0.071 0.505
Days of hospitalization prior to culture, median (IQR), days 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 14.0 (6.0–25.0) N/A < 0.001 < 0.001
Polymicrobial infection 12 (17.1) 16 (15.7) 40 (24.2) 0.799 0.095 0.231
Primary site of infection
 Pneumonia 4 (5.7) 20 (19.6) 36 (21.8) 0.013 0.666 0.002
 Urinary tract 14 (20.0) 18 (17.6) 15 (9.1) 0.697 0.039 0.020
 Intra-abdomena 26 (37.1) 32 (31.4) 36 (21.8) 0.432 0.082 0.015
 Liver abscess 14 (20.0) 5 (4.9) 2 (1.2) 0.002 0.110 < 0.001
 Skin and soft tissue 2 (2.9) 1 (1.0) 4 (2.4) 0.567 0.652 1.000
 Intravenous catheter 0 (0.0) 1 (1.0) 8 (4.8) 1.000 0.160 0.109
 Primary bacteremia 5 (7.1) 21 (20.6) 60 (36.4) 0.016 0.006 < 0.001
 Disseminated infection 4 (5.7) 4 (3.9) 2 (1.2) 0.717 0.206 0.066
Underlying disease
 Malignancy 12 (17.1) 49 (48.0) 95 (57.6) < 0.001 0.129 < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 27 (38.6) 41 (40.2) 46 (27.9) 0.830 0.037 0.105
 Chronic kidney disease 28 (40.0) 35 (34.3) 57 (34.5) 0.447 0.969 0.426
 Hemodialysis 0 (0.0) 5 (4.9) 15 (9.1) 0.081 0.206 0.007
 Congestive heart failure 4 (5.7) 13 (12.7) 14 (8.5) 0.193 0.262 0.597
 Liver cirrhosis 6 (8.6) 10 (9.8) 14 (8.5) 0.785 0.714 0.983
 Cerebral vascular disease 7 (10.0) 15 (14.7) 28 (17.0) 0.364 0.625 0.170
 Chronic obstructive lung disease 2 (2.9) 7 (6.9) 6 (3.6) 0.313 0.234 1.000
 Collagen vascular disease 2 (2.9) 3 (2.9) 6 (3.6) 1.000 1.000 1.000
 Transplantation 1 (1.4) 4 (3.9) 5 (3.0) 0.649 0.735 0.672
 Immunosuppressionb 5 (7.1) 41 (40.2) 69 (41.8) < 0.001 0.794 < 0.001
Invasive procedures and devices at onset of bacteremia 14 (20.0) 30 (29.4) 98 (59.4) 0.165 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Central venous catheter 1 (1.4) 3 (2.9) 45 (27.3) 0.647 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Nasogastric/Nasojejunal tube 9 (12.9) 21 (20.6) 72 (43.6) 0.189 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Urinary catheter 8 (11.4) 16 (15.7) 53 (32.1) 0.429 0.003 0.001
 Endotracheal tubec 1 (1.4) 2 (2.0) 24 (14.5) 1.000 < 0.001 0.002
 Tracheostomy 1 (1.4) 0 (0.0) 18 (10.9) 0.407 < 0.001 0.016
 Surgical drainage 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 16 (9.7) N/A < 0.001 0.004
Surgery within 2 weeks 0 (0.0) 5 (4.9) 32 (19.4) 0.081 0.001 < 0.001
Prior antibiotic exposure
 Any antibiotic 0 (0.0) 30 (29.4) 109 (66.1) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 1st or 2nd generation cephalosporind 0 (0.0) 16 (15.7) 46 (27.9) < 0.001 0.022 < 0.001
 3rd or 4th generation cephalosporine 0 (0.0) 4 (3.9) 25 (15.2) 0.147 0.004 < 0.001
 β-lactam and β-lactamase inhibitorf 0 (0.0) 11 (10.8) 55 (33.3) 0.003 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Carbapenemg 0 (0.0) 5 (4.9) 31 (18.8) 0.081 0.001 < 0.001
 Fluoroquinoloneh 0 (0.0) 4 (3.9) 23 (13.9) 0.147 0.011 < 0.001
 Aminoglycosidei 0 (0.0) 1 (1.0) 9 (5.5) 1.000 0.095 0.061
 Tigecycline 0 (0.0) 1 (1.0) 12 (7.3) 1.000 0.020 0.020
 Glycopeptidej 0 (0.0) 1 (1.0) 20 (12.1) 1.000 0.001 0.001
 Metronidazole 0 (0.0) 2 (2.0) 11 (6.7) 0.514 0.140 0.037
Pitt bacteremia score, median (IQR) 1.0 (0.0–2.0) 1.0 (0.0–3.0) 2.0 (0.0–4.0) 0.517 0.054 0.012
APACHE II score, median (IQR) 11.0 (9.0–16.0) 17.0 (11.0–22.0) 19.0 (14.0–24.0) < 0.001 0.016 < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as number (%) of patients, unless stated otherwise
  2. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, APACHE Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation, N/A not applicable
  3. aIntra-abdominal infection was defined as infections of single organs of abdomen with or without extension into the peritoneal space with exclusion of liver abscess
  4. bImmunosuppression was defined as meeting one of the following criteria: neutropenia, use of corticosteroids, or receiving chemotherapy
  5. cEndotracheal tube was defined as patient being intubated at the onset of bacteremia
  6. dIncluding cefazolin and cefuroxime
  7. eIncluding cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime, and cefpirome
  8. fIncluding amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ticarcillin/clavulanate
  9. gIncluding ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem
  10. hIncluding ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin
  11. iIncluding amikacin, gentamicin and isepamicin
  12. jIncluding vancomycin and teicoplanin