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Table 1 Characteristics of ST131 E. coli colonized and non-colonized household members of index community patients. Data are expressed as number of exposed patients (percentage) except where specified

From: Intestinal colonization due to Escherichia coli ST131: risk factors and prevalence

Features of contacts (individual level) ST 131 colonized household members (n = 18) Non-ST131 colonized household members (n = 46) P Adjusted OR (multilevel) p
Median age in years (IQR) 55 (47.25–74) 48 (37–58.5) 0.06   
Male gender 6 (33.3) 17 (37.0) 0.78   
Median Charlson index (IQR) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.42   
Diabetes mellitus 2 (11.1) 3 (6.5) 0.61   
Cancer 0 3 (6.5) 0.55   
Recurrent urinary tract infections 1 (5.6) 0 0.28   
Dependent for basic activities 2 (11.1) 0 0.07   
Bed-ridden 1 (5.6) 0 0.28   
Recurrent urinary tract infections 1 (5.6) 0 0.22   
Urinary catheter 0 0    
Usual caregiver of index patient 11 (61.1) 21 (45.6) 0.26   
Contact with farm animals 1 (5.6) 1 (2.2) 0.48   
Shared bathroom with index patient 14 (77.8) 42 (91.3) 0.14   
Travel abroad in the previous 3 months 0 1 (2.2) 1   
Sexual partner of index patient 6 (33.3) 14 (30.4) 0.82   
Mean meal outside home > 3 days/week 3 (16.7) 6 (13.0) 0.70   
Cook regularly at home 9 (50) 22 (47.8) 0.87   
Eat chicken products ≥1 per week 11 (61.1) 28 (60.9) 0.98   
Eat turkey products ≥1 per week 5 (27.8) 17 (37.0) 0.48   
Eat raw vegetables ≥1 per week 17 (94.4) 39 (84.8) 0.29   
Recent antibiotic use 3 (16.7) 1 (2.2) 0.06   
Proton pump inhibitor use 9 (50.0) 12 (26.1) 0.06 3.08 (0.88–10.8) 0.07
Features of index patient (cluster level) Clusters with one or more ST131 colonized household member (n = 13) Clusters without any ST131 colonized household member (n = 21) P   
Median age in years (IQR) 79 (69.75–83.75) 67.5 (51.5–81) 0.16 1.05 (1.01–1.10) 0.05
Male gender 8 (61.5) 8 (38) 0.43   
Bed-ridden 0 0 0.81   
Dependent for basic activities 2 (15.3) 2 (9.5) 0.65   
Urinary catheter 4 (30.7) 3 (14.28) 0.36   
Median Charlson index (IQR) 0.5 (0–2) 1.5 (0–2) 1   
Pets at home 7 (53.8) 11 (52.4) 0.96   
Recent antimicrobial use 9 (69.2) 13 (61.9) 0.84