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Table 1 Baseline and post-intervention hand hygiene compliance, stratified by hospital, ward type, healthcare worker type, and indication. Odds ratios comparing post-intervention to baseline were calculated adjusting for repeated measures on each of the seven wards with complete reporting

From: Evaluation of a program to improve hand hygiene in Kenyan hospitals through production and promotion of alcohol-based Handrub – 2012-2014

  Pre-Intervention (Baseline) Post-Intervention Odds Ratio  
Number of Opportunities Observed Compliance Number of Opportunities Observed Compliance (95% Confidence Interval) P value
Overall 2809 28% 22,929 38% 1.59 (1.24, 2.05) 0.0003
Hospital
Hospital A 1930 28% 16,675 39% 1.65 (1.22, 2.24) 0.0012
Hospital B 299 31% 1844 47% 2.18 (2.05, 2.32) < 0.0001
Hospital C 580 27% 4410 31% 1.20 (0.62, 2.33) 0.5943
Ward Type
ICU (1 unit)a 629 43% 4680 50% 1.30 (1.10, 1.54) 0.0021
Medical/ Surgical (1 ward)a 298 18% 2160 31% 2.03 (1.49, 2.77) < 0.0001
Specialty (3 wards) 779 24% 8156 37% 1.75 (1.14, 2.71) 0.0113
Pediatrics (2 wards) 1103 24% 7933 34% 1.64 (0.99, 2.70) 0.0539
Healthcare Worker Typeb
Medical Officers 759 25% 4911 37% 1.73 (1.19, 2.50) 0.0038
Clinical Officers (Physician Assistant) 520 20% 3054 26% 1.54 (0.98, 2.43) 0.0611
Nurses 808 31% 7457 40% 1.43 (0.99, 2.05) 0.0562
Students 343 35% 4630 46% 1.85 (1.18, 2.91) 0.0077
Technicians 97 32% 276 34% 1.45 (1.19, 1.77) 0.0002
Others 282 31% 2590 34% 1.25 (0.79, 1.97) 0.3367
Indicationc (WHO “Moments”)
Before touching patient 610 2% 5623 4% 2.24 (1.24, 4.02) 0.0072
Before clean/Aseptic task 457 1% 3786 5% 14.4 (1.65, 125.74) 0.0159
After body fluid exposure 30 93% 908 74% 0.16 (0.33, 0.99) 0.0479
After touching patient 1034 55% 9810 64% 1.67 (1.13, 2.47) 0.0108
After Patient Environmental Exposure 675 26% 4431 44% 1.44 (1.00, 2.09) 0.0516
  1. aDid not adjust for repeated measures, only one unit compared
  2. bMissing healthcare worker type for 11 observations in the post-intervention period
  3. cMissing indication for 3 observations in the baseline period and 18 observations post-intervention
  4. Italic entries are statistically significant