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Table 1 Overall antimicrobial consumption using different metrics by the patient demographics, ICU type, and antimicrobial type

From: Antimicrobial consumption in five adult intensive care units: a 33-month surveillance study

  Average consumption per day Sum of consumption during the study Average DOT per admission
  Grams (mean ± SD) DDD (mean ± SD) DDD
(Sum)
DDD (%) DOT
(Sum)
DOT (%)
Overall 3.23 ± 4.82 0.94 ± 0.91 43,970.1 100.0% 46,940 100.0% 9.5
Age
 19–45 3.79 ± 5.44 1.08 ± 1.01 12,706.5 28.9% 11,802 25.1%  
 46–65 3.27 ± 4.83 0.93 ± 0.9 12,396.3 28.2% 13,277 28.3%  
  > 65 2.9 ± 4.4 0.86 ± 0.85 18,867.3 42.9% 21,861 46.6%  
Gender
 Male 3.45 ± 5.02 0.95 ± 0.88 25,725.8 58.5% 27,188 57.9%  
 Female 2.92 ± 4.51 0.92 ± 0.95 18,238.0 41.5% 19,743 42.1%  
Type of ICU
 Medical/surgical 2.86 ± 4.42 0.91 ± 0.9 20,981.9 47.7% 23,150 49.3% 14.3
 Neurosurgical 5.31 ± 6.25 1.14 ± 0.8 6285.9 14.3% 5504 11.7% 7.0
 Burn 3.36 ± 5.14 0.95 ± 0.75 3632.7 8.3% 3820 8.1% 9.8
 Cardiothoracic 5.17 ± 5.87 0.93 ± 0.62 2823.4 6.4% 3050 6.5% 2.0
 Step-down 2.41 ± 3.84 0.9 ± 1.07 10,246.3 23.3% 11,416 24.3% 18.3
Antimicrobials
 Amikacin 0.63 ± 0.38 0.63 ± 0.38 385.1 0.9% 607 1.3%  
 Gentamicin 0.19 ± 0.13 0.8 ± 0.53 684.5 1.6% 851 1.8%  
 Imipenem 1.53 ± 0.62 0.77 ± 0.31 2079.1 4.7% 2710 5.8%  
 Meropenem 2.34 ± 1.02 1.17 ± 0.51 11,770.4 26.8% 10,047 21.4%  
 Ceftriaxone 2.02 ± 1.11 1.01 ± 0.55 1155.5 2.6% 1142 2.4%  
 Cefotaxime 2.89 ± 0.49 0.72 ± 0.12 69.4 0.2% 96 0.2%  
 Ceftazidime 3.14 ± 1.81 0.78 ± 0.45 495.0 1.1% 631 1.3%  
 Cefepime 2.92 ± 1.53 1.46 ± 0.77 856.2 1.9% 586 1.2%  
 Ciprofloxacin, IV 0.72 ± 0.34 1.44 ± 0.67 3974.2 9.0% 2760 5.9%  
 Ciprofloxacin, oral 0.76 ± 0.3 0.76 ± 0.3 78.4 0.2% 103 0.2%  
 Norfloxacin, IV 0.45 ± 0.46 0.57 ± 0.71 463.6 1.1% 810 1.7%  
 Norfloxacin, oral 0.43 ± 0.14 0.54 ± 0.17 19.5 0.0% 36 0.1%  
 Piperacillin/ Tazobactam 12.89 ± 4.33 0.92 ± 0.31 7270.2 16.5% 7896 16.8%  
 Vancomycin, IV 1.46 ± 0.86 0.73 ± 0.43 4715.5 10.7% 6476 13.8%  
 Vancomycin, oral 1.12 ± 0.51 1.12 ± 0.51 596.7 1.4% 533 1.1%  
 Tigecycline 0.11 ± 0.05 1.08 ± 0.52 1255.5 2.9% 1163 2.5%  
 Colistin 0.35 ± 0.18 0.12 ± 0.06 738.3 1.7% 6360 13.5%  
 Caspofungin 0.05 ± 0.02 1.1 ± 0.56 4125.5 9.4% 3742 8.0%  
 Amphotericin B 0.29 ± 0.08 8.28 ± 2.28 3237.6 7.4% 391 0.8%  
Route
 Intravenous 3.25 ± 4.84 0.94 ± 0.91 43,329.1 98.5% 46,311 98.7%  
 Oral 1.25 ± 1.75 1.02 ± 0.53 641.1 1.5% 629 1.3%