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Table 2 The percentage reductions in biofilm seeding following testing with the three doses of BL

From: The potential of visible blue light (405 nm) as a novel decontamination strategy for carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (CPE)

Study identifier Bacterium Resistance mechanism^ Percentage (%) reductions in biofilm seeding following BL exposure
5 min (162 J/cm2) 15 min (54 J/cm2) 30 min (108 J/cm2)
% reduction n p-value % reduction n p-value % reduction n p-value
CPE_8180 K. pneumoniae bla NDM 13.9 20 < 0.0001 15.9 40 < 0.0001 66.1 40 < 0.0001
CPE_8770 K. pneumoniae bla NDM 88.1 20 < 0.0001 89.0 40 < 0.0001 90.9 40 < 0.0001
CPE_9606 E. coli bla NDM 66.7 20 < 0.0001 93.0 40 < 0.0001 91.8 40 < 0.0001
CPE_7534 E. coli bla NDM 54.2 40 < 0.0001 76.3 40 < 0.0001 89.1 40 < 0.0001
CPE_5773 K. pneumoniae blaNDM & blaOXA-48 64.7 20 < 0.0001 81.9 40 < 0.0001 94.6 40 < 0.0001
CPE_6949 K. pneumoniae bla KPC 32.5 20 0.0023 47.7 40 < 0.0001 87.7 40 < 0.0001
CPE_0257 K. pneumoniae bla KPC 34.8 20 < 0.0001 82.9 40 < 0.0001 83.4 40 < 0.0001
CPE_4388 K. oxytoca bla KPC 89.8 20 < 0.0001 79.8 40 < 0.0001 91.2 40 < 0.0001
CPE_1798 K. pneumoniae bla OXA-48 20.6 20 0.0202 74.3 40 < 0.0001 85.5 40 < 0.0001
CPE_8421 E. coli bla OXA-48 28.9 40 0.0044 68.3 40 < 0.0001 82.9 40 < 0.0001
CPE_9956 K. pneumoniae blaNDM & blaOXA-48 31.0 20 < 0.0001 40.0 40 < 0.0001 96.7 40 < 0.0001
CPE_7855 K. pneumoniae blaNDM & blaOXA-48 26.3 20 0.0015 87.9 40 < 0.0001 97.7 40 < 0.0001
  1. Notes: Resistance mechanism: ^ as determined through PCR testing at reference laboratory. blaNDM (gene encoding for New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1), blaKPC (gene encoding for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase), blaOXA-48 (gene encoding oxacillinase OXA-48)
  2. Bold numbers represent results where there was ≥80% reductions in biofilm seeding
  3. ‘n’ refers to the number of technical replicates that were performed