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Table 2 Types of interventions and outcomes

From: Value of hospital antimicrobial stewardship programs [ASPs]: a systematic review

  Number of studies Percentage
Intervention (N = 145)
 Therapy evaluation, review and/or feedback 82 57
 Altered therapy guidelines 37 25
 Giving education 18 12
 Antibiotic restriction lists of pre-authorization 15 10
 Rapid diagnostic tools 11 8
 New biomarkers 4 3
 Pre-analytic consultations 2 1
 Antibiotic cycling 1 1
 Other 1 1
Outcome Measures (N = 146)
Antibiotic Use   
 Antimicrobial resistance 22 15
 Antibiotic usage 100 68
Patient Outcomes
 LOS (days) 79 54
 Mortality rate 58 40
 Overall readmission rate 23 16
  o 28/30-day readmission rate 15 10
Economic Outcomes
 Antimicrobial costs 91 62
 Implementation costs 9 6
 LOS costs 3 2
 Operational costs 22 15
 Cost savings 54 37
 Othera 47 32
  1. Abbreviations: LOS Length of stay
  2. aOther outcome measures include but are not limited to mechanical ventilator use, adherence to guidelines, QALYs, avoidable hospital cost, etc.