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Table 3 Literature synthesis of key outcomes: results and ranges

From: Value of hospital antimicrobial stewardship programs [ASPs]: a systematic review

  # Studies Reporting Reductions or No Change Range # Studies Reporting Increases Range
Patient Outcomes
 LOS 58 −21.9 to 0 days 10 0.1 to 5 days
 All-cause mortality rate 41 −18.1 to 0% 13 0.02 to 11%
 Infection-related mortality ratea 9 −12.0 to 0% 3 1 to 2.9%
 All-cause readmission rate 13 −12 to 0% 8 0.2 to 8.6%
  o 28/30-day 9 −10.86 to 0% 5 0.2 to 8.6%
 Infection-related readmission rate 8 −2.94% to − 0.8% 2 0.3 to 0.65%
  o 28/30-day 7 −2.94% to −0.7% 1 0.65%
Cost Outcomes
 Implementation costs 0 N/A 9 $2.5 k to $39.9 k
 Annual operational costsa 11 −72.4% to − 12.9% 5 7.9 to 243%
 Antibiotic costs 80 −80.1% to − 0.06% 7 4.1 to 51.5%
 LOS costsb 2 -$18.3 k to -$1.95 M 0 N/A
 Overall hospital costsb 32 -$9.11 k to -$2.06 M 0 N/A
  1. aIn these rows, the studies in the 2 columns are not mutually exclusive since more than 1 outcome was evaluated
  2. bOnly included studies measuring cost outcomes in USDN/A = Not Applicable