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Table 2 Risk factors for ceftriaxone resistance among urinary Escherichia coli isolates

From: Individual and community predictors of urinary ceftriaxone-resistant Escherichia coli isolates, Victoria, Australia

Characteristic Proportion ceftriaxone resistant Risk ratio (95% CI)* Adjusted risk ratio (95% CI)
Sex
 Female 5.5% (331/6008) reference reference
 Male 7% (51/724) 1.28 (0.96–1.70) 1.17 (0.88–1.55)
Age group
 80 years and more 6.4% (72/1119) reference reference
 70–79 years 6.3% (66/1048) 0.98 (0.71–1.35) 1.22 (0.87–1.70)
 60–69 years 5.4% (48/890) 0.84 (0.59–1.19) 1.12 (0.77–1.63)
 50–59 years 5.6% (42/751) 0.87 (0.60–1.26) 1.20 (0.81–1.78)
 40–49 years 3.9% (26/659) 0.61 (0.40–0.95) 0.84 (0.53–1.34)
 30–39 years 5.3% (39/734) 0.83 (0.57–1.21) 1.05 (0.70–1.59)
 20–29 years 6.9% (58/846) 1.07 (0.76–1.49) 1.48 (1.02–2.15)
 15–19 years 3.3% (8/246) 0.51 (0.25–1.04) 0.77 (0.37–1.61)
 10–14 years 2.8% (2/72) 0.43 (0.11–1.72) 0.66 (0.17–2.61)
 5–9 years 4.1% (8/194) 0.64 (0.31–1.31) 0.98 (0.47–2.02)
 0–4 years 7.6% (13/170) 1.19 (0.67–2.10) 1.71 (0.95–3.07)
Residence in RACF
 No 5.3% (337/6397) reference reference
 Yes 13.4% (45/335) 2.55 (1.91–3.41) 2.94 (2.10–4.13)
Referral source
 Community 5.4% (332/6095) reference reference
 Hospital: ED 4.2% (15/358) 0.77 (0.46–1.28) 0.72 (0.43–1.21)
 Hospital: non-ED 12.5% (35/279) 2.30 (1.66–3.19) 2.05 (1.45–2.9)
Region
 Western Metropolitan 7.9% (78/982) reference reference
 Northern Metropolitan 8.8% (59/672) 1.11 (0.80–1.53)  
 Eastern Metropolitan 6.6% (47/710) 0.83 (0.59–1.18)  
 South-Eastern Metropolitan 7.1% (70/981) 0.90 (0.66–1.23)  
 Southern Metropolitan 4.2% (28/660) 0.53 (0.35–0.81)  
 Northern Victoria 3.7% (28/763) 0.46 (0.30–0.70)  
 Eastern Victoria 5.2% (51/973) 0.66 (0.47–0.93)  
 Western Victoria 2.2% (6/270) 0.28 (0.12–0.63)  
 Other 2.1% (15/714) 0.26 (0.15–0.46)  
Remoteness area
 Major Cities 6.3% (330/5267) reference  
 Inner Regional 3.5% (44/1268) 0.55 (0.41–0.75) 0.89 (0.60–1.30)
 Other 4.2% (8/191) 0.67 (0.34–1.33) 1.13 (0.56–2.31)
Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage, 1st decile
 No 5.4% (332/6120) reference  
 Yes 8.3% (49/591) 1.53 (1.15–2.04) 0.93 (0.65–1.31)
Percentage of postcode residents born in region, median (IQR)
 Oceania and Antarctica NA 0.89 0.86–0.92)  
 North-West Europe NA 0.62 (0.49–0.77)  
 Southern and Eastern Europe NA 1.39 (1.23–1.57) 1.12 (0.94–1.32)
 North Africa and the Middle East NA 1.47 (1.31–1.65) 1.30 (1.09–1.54)
 South-East Asia NA 1.24 (1.16–1.33) 1.14 (1.02–1.27)
 North-East Asia NA 1.09 (1.01–1.19) 0.99 (0.89–1.11)
 Southern and Central Asia NA 1.29 (1.20–1.38) 1.16 (1.04–1.28)
 Americas NA 1.76 (0.49–6.33)  
 Sub-Saharan Africa NA 2.02 (1.02–3.99) 1.55 (0.66–3.65)
  1. Notes: *From univariable Poisson regression models; †From multivariable Poisson regression model (23 records omitted due to missing values); ‡ Effect measure corresponds to the change in prevalence of ceftriaxone resistance for each 5% increase in proportion of residents born in specified region. ED = emergency department; IQR = interquartile range; RACF = residential aged-care facility