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Table 1 Epidemiological, clinical and biological characteristics of preterm infants infected/colonized by Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A clone in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at Nîmes University Hospital from 2012 to 2017

From: Successful implementation of infection control measure in a neonatal intensive care unit to combat the spread of pathogenic multidrug resistant Staphylococcus capitis

Characteristics Period 1
No steam cleaner
Period 2
Steam cleaner
Period 3
No steam cleaner
Period 4
Steam cleaner
Total
Dec 12-Apr 15 May 15-Nov 16 Dec 16-Feb 17 Mar 17-Dec 17 Dec 12-Dec 17
Number of patients (n) 23 7 7 0 37
Number of patients admitted to the NICU 1255 747 100 416 2518
Incidence of S. capitis (‰) 1.04 0.55 3.95 0* 0.85
Male, n (%) 14 (60.9) 5 (71.4) 5 (71.4) 24 (64.9)
Gestational age, weeks (range) 27 (25–35) 28 (24–33) 27 (24–29) 27 (25–34)
Body weight, g (range) 919 (560–2500) 1175 (790–1985) 1095 (680–1400) 995(560–2500)
Intrauterine growth restriction, n (%) 7 (30.4) 1 (14.3) 0 (0) 8 (21.6)
Death, n (%) 4 (17.4) 0 (0) 2 (28.6) 0 (0) 6 (16.2)
Death due to S. capitis, n (%) 2 (8.7) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (5.4)
Infection S. aureus 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7
Infection S. capitis, n (%) 9 (39.1) 1 (14.3) 2 (28.6) 12 (32.4)
Main sites of isolation
Blood, n (%) 7 (78) 1 (100) 2 (100) 10 (83)
Catheter, n (%) 2 (22) 0 (0) 0 (0)   2 (17)
Cutaneous, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0
Colonisation S. capitis 14 6 5  
Main sites of isolation
Blood, n (%) 3 (26) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (12)
Catheter, n (%) 9 (60) 6 (100) 5 (100) 20 (80)
Cutaneous, n (%) 2 (14) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (8)
Number of patients which have received antibiotics treatment before infection, n (%) 16 (69.6) 4 (57.1) 5 (71.4) 25 (67.6)
Number of patients which have received vancomycin used before infection, n (%) 8 (34.8) 2 (28.6) 3 (42.9) 13 (35.1)
DDD/1000HDa Vancomycin 25.4 25.5 29.1 27.0 27.4
DDD/1000HD Linezolid 12.1 9.3 14.0 11.7 11.4
  1. *p < 0.001, comparison between incidences during the different periods (Period 1, Period 2, Period 3 and Period 4) using Fisher’s exact test; aDDD/1000HD: Defined Daily Dose/1000 Hospital Days