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Table 4 Hand hygiene compliance rates by nurses and physicians observed for each of the 5 HH moments at baseline, post-intervention and at long-term evaluation

From: A multifaceted hand hygiene improvement program on the intensive care units of the National Referral Hospital of Indonesia in Jakarta

Moment, by healthcare worker Compliance % (correct/total number)
Baseline Post-intervention Long-term evaluation p (I-III)a p (I-IV)a p (III-IV)a
(Phase I) (Phase III) (Phase IV)    
1. Before touching a patient
 Nurses 21 (58/276) 88 (115/131) 31 (174/569) < 0.001 0.0657 < 0.001
 Physicians 13 (14/110) 66 (57/87) 18 (24/136) < 0.001 0.7147 < 0.001
2. Before a clean/aseptic procedure
 Nurses 17 (33/194) 75 (118/157) 37 (80/215) < 0.001 0.0032 < 0.001
 Physicians 39 (7/18) 50 (7/14) 54 (14/26) < 0.001 0.0775 0.0037
3. After body fluid exposure risk
 Nurses 69 (64/93) 91 (49/54) 85 (204/239) 0.0383 0.1032 0.5811
 Physicians 80 (12/15) 80 (4/5) 75 (21/28) 0.8608 0.5276 0.8958
4. After touching a patient
 Nurses 49 (257/529) 93 (181/194) 70 (390/560) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Physicians 39 (63/163) 72 (76/105) 43 (61/143) < 0.001 0.0345 0.0036
5. After touching patient’s surroundings
 Nurses 15 (95/616) 80 (370/463) 15 (152/1043) < 0.001 0.9007 < 0.001
 Physicians 6 (18/304) 54 (96/179) 3 (18/521) < 0.001 0.2311 < 0.001
  1. aBased on the linear mixed model analysis. Significant changes in compliance are in bold character