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Table 1 Surgical site infection rates per surgical category and procedure type adjusted for the risk factor male sex

From: Gender-related risk factors for surgical site infections. Results from 10 years of surveillance in Germany

  Female sex Male sex IRR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
N SSI % N SSI %
All procedures 679,529 8847 1.30 587,253 9977 1.70 1.31 (1.27–1.34) 1.19 (1.12–1.26)
Orthopedics and traumatology 448,287 3077 0.69 287,290 2390 0.83 1.21 (1.15–1.28) 1.26 (1.18–1.35)
 Hip prosthesis following arthrosis 222,430 1476 0.66 155,513 1357 0.87 1.32 (1.22–1.42) 1.33 (1.21–1.45)
 Hip prosthesis following fracture 53,480 995 1.86 22,801 437 1.92 1.03 (0.92–1.15) 0.99 (0.88–1.13)
 Knee prosthesis 159,102 591 0.37 92,223 550 0.60 1.61 (1.43–1.81) 1.56 (1.37–1.77)
 Arthroscopic procedures 13,275 15 0.11 16,753 46 0.27 2.43 (1.36–4.46) 2.07 (1.15–3.73)
Abdominal surgery 138,543 3653 2.64 94,426 3687 3.90 1.50 (1.43–1.57) 1.28 (1.21–1.35)
 Cholecystectomy (endoscopic) 83,623 651 0.78 44,552 374 0.84 1.08 (0.95–1.23) 0.92 (0.81–1.03)
 Colon surgery (endoscopic) 13,193 565 4.28 10,786 594 5.51 1.29 (1.15–1.44) 1.26 (1.10–1.44)
 Colon surgery (open) 27,864 2368 8.50 27,455 2641 9.62 1.15 (1.08–1.21) 1.11 (1.04–1.19)
 Appendectomy (endoscopic) 13,863 69 0.50 11,633 78 0.67 1.35 (0.97–1.86) 1.24 (0.94–1.63)
Heart and vascular surgery 52,060 1958 3.76 124,457 3660 2.94 0.78 (0.73–0.82) 0.65 (0.56–0.76)
 CABG (incl. Vein harvesting) 18,209 1022 5.61 70,014 2250 3.21 0.56 (0.52–0.60) 0.55 (0.49–0.62)
 CABG (without vein harvesting) 4627 328 7.09 18,803 503 2.68 0.36 (0.31–0.41) 0.35 (0.24–0.52)
 Re-vascularization of arterial occlusion 14,263 523 3.67 27,579 868 3.15 0.85 (0.77–0.95) 0.83 (0.74–0.91)
 Venous stripping 14,961 85 0.57 8061 39 0.48 0.85 (0.58–1.24) 0.85 (0.61–1.18)
Neurosurgery 16,103 59 0.37 19,127 75 0.39 1.07 (0.76–1.51) 1.08 (0.61–1.93)
 Lumbar disk surgery 16,103 59 0.37 19,127 75 0.39 1.07 (0.76–1.51) 1.08 (0.61–1.93)
General surgery 24,536 100 0.41 61,953 165 0.27 0.65 (0.51–0.84) 0.59 (0.42–0.82)
 Hernia repair (endoscopic) 3679 9 0.24 31,725 32 0.10 0.41 (0.20–0.86) 0.38 (0.20–0.74)
 Hernia repair (open) 3871 19 04.9 23,868 85 0.36 0.72 (0.44–1.19) 0.60 (0.37–0.99)
 Thyroid surgery 16,986 72 0.42 6360 48 0.75 1.79 (1.24–2.57) 1.66 (1.21–2.29)
  1. N number, SSI Surgical site infection(s), IRR incidence rate ratio, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, CABG Coronary artery bypass grafting