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Table 2 Deep and organ-space surgical site infection rates per surgical category and procedure type adjusted for the risk factor male sex

From: Gender-related risk factors for surgical site infections. Results from 10 years of surveillance in Germany

  Female sex Male sex IRR(95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
N SSI % N SSI %
All procedures 679,529 5295 0.78 587,253 6360 1.08 1.39 (1.34–1.45) 1.27 (1.18–1.36)
Orthopedics and traumatology 448,287 2327 0.52 287,290 1946 0.68 1.31 (1.23–1.39) 1.36 (1.26–1.47)
 Hip prosthesis following arthrosis 222,430 1099 0.49 155,513 1103 0.71 1.44 (1.32–1.56) 1.46 (1.32–1.60)
 Hip prosthesis following fracture 53,480 803 1.50 22,801 354 1.55 1.04 (0.91–1.17) 0.99 (0.87–1.14)
 Knee prosthesis 159,102 411 0.26 92,223 448 0.49 1.89 (1.65–2.16) 1.83 (1.59–2.11)
 Arthroscopic procedures 13,275 14 0.11 16,753 41 0.24 2.32 (1.27–4.26) 1.96 (1.10–3.47)
Abdominal surgery 138,543 1717 1.24 94,426 2030 2.15 1.75 (1.64–1.87) 1.48 (1.37–1.60)
 Cholecystectomy (endoscopic) 83,623 224 0.27 44,552 199 0.45 1.67 (1.38–2.02) 1.26 (1.02–1.55)
 Colon (endoscopic) 13,193 293 2.22 10,786 361 3.35 1.53 (1.31–1.78) 1.47 (1.25–1.72)
 Colon (open) 27,864 1163 4.17 27,455 1434 5.22 1.27 (1.17–1.37) 1.23 (1.12–1.34)
 Appendectomy (endoscopic) 13,863 37 0.27 11,633 36 0.31 1.16 (0.73–1.84) 1.24 (0.94–1.63)
Heart and vascular surgery 52,060 1174 2.26 124,457 2281 1.83 0.81 (0.75–0.87) 0.68 (0.56–0.82)
 CABG (incl. Vein harvesting) 18,209 690 3.79 70,014 1511 2.16 0.56 (0.51–0.61) 0.55 (0.48–0.64)
 CABG (without vein harvesting) 4627 205 4.43 18,803 300 1.60 0.35 (0.29–0.42) 0.35 (0.22–0.56)
 Re-vascularization of arterial occlusion 14,263 261 1.83 27,579 458 1.66 0.91 (0.78–1.06) 0.87 (0.75–1.02)
 Venous stripping 14,961 18 0.12 8061 12 0.15 1.24 (0.60–2.57) 1.24 (0.67–2.30)
Neurosurgery 16,103 35 0.22 19,127 43 0.22 1.03 (0.66–1.62) 1.03 (0.44–2.45)
 Lumbar disk surgery 16,103 35 0.22 19,127 43 0.22 1.03 (0.66–1.62) 1.03 (0.44–2.45)
General surgery 24,536 42 0.17 61,953 60 0.10 0.57 (0.38–0.84) 0.51 (0.33–0.79)
 Hernia repair (endoscopic) 3679 3 0.08 31,725 13 0.04 0.50 (0.14–1.76) 0.50 (0.14–1.80)
 Hernia repair (open) 3871 9 0.23 23,868 27 0.11 0.49 (0.23–1.04) 0.48 (0.23–1.01)
 Thyroid surgery 16,986 30 0.18 6360 20 0.31 1.78 (1.01–3.14) 1.62 (1.09–2.39)
  1. N number, SSI surgical site infection(s), IRR Incidence rate ratio, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting