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Table 2 Association of fecal carriage of ESBL-E, pAmpC-E, CIP-RE, and CIRE with risk factors, Northern Cyprus, 2017

From: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase, plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase, fluoroquinolone resistance, and decreased susceptibility to carbapenems in Enterobacteriaceae: fecal carriage rates and associated risk factors in the community of Northern Cyprus

Risk factors ESBL-E pAmpC-E CIP-RE CIRE
Positive n/N (%) p value OR (95% CI) Positive n/N (%) p value OR (95% CI) Positive n/N (%) p value OR (95% CI) Positive n/N (%) p value OR (95% CI)
Age
 19–30 60/238 (25.2) 0.059 0.66 (0.43–1.02) 9/238 (3.8) 0.352 0.61 (0.21–1.74) 24/237 (10.1) 0.855 1.06 (0.60–1.89) 4/234 (1.7) 0.203 0.23 (0.03–2.10)
 31 and above 46/253 (18.2)   6/256 (2.3)   27/254 (10.6)   1/249 (0.4)  
 Total 106/491 (21.6)   15/494 (3.0)   51/491 (10.4)    5/483 (1.0)   
Gender
 Male 76/318 (23.9) 0.087 1.50 (0.94–2.39) 9/320 (2.8) 0.743 0.84 (0.29–2.40) 32/318 (10.1) 0.846 0.94 (0.52–1.72) 3/312 (1.0) 0.672 0.56 (0.11–2.82)
 Female 31/179 (17.3)   6/180 (3.3)   19/179 (10.6)   3/177 (1.7)  
 Total 107/497 (21.5)    15/500 (3.0)    51/497 (10.3)    6/489 (1.2)   
Education
 University or higher 24/116 (20.7) 0.802 0.94 (0.56–1.56) 2/118 (1.7) 0.538 0.49 (0.11–2.20) 17/116 (14.7) 0.075 1.75 (0.94–3.27) 3/114 (2.6) 0.142 3.35 (0.67–16.84)
 Lower than university 83/381 (21.8)   13/382 (3.4)   34/381 (8.9)   3/375 (0.8)  
 Total 107/497 (21.5)    15/500 (3.0)    51/497 (10.3)    6/489 (1.2)   
Socioeconomic status
 Middle and high 44/192 (22.9) 0.580 1.13 (0.73–1.75) 4/194 (2.1) 0.307 0.55 (0.17–1.76) 27/192 (14.1) 0.024 1.96 (1.09–3.53) 2/189 (1.1) 1.000 0.77 (0.14–4.26)
 Low 62/298 (20.8)   11/299 (3.7)   23/298 (7.7)   4/293 (1.4)  
 Total 106/490 (21.6)    15/493 (3.0)    50/490 (10.2)    6/482 (1.2)   
Presence of any GISa
 Yes 17/67 (25.4) 0.411 1.28 (0.71–2.33) 4/67 (6.0) 0.128 2.44 (0.75–7.88) 8/67 (11.9) 0.626 1.22 (0.55–2.72) 3/65 (4.6) 0.033 6.79 (1.34–34.39)
 No 90/430 (20.9)   11/433 (2.5)   43/430 (10.0)   3/424 (0.7)  
 Total 107/497 (21.5)    15/500 (3.0)    51/497 (10.3)    6/489 (1.2)   
Antibiotic historyb
 Yes 35/123 (28.5) 0.031 1.67 (1.04–2.67) 6/124 (4.8) 0.220 2.07 (0.72–5.95) 10/123 (8.1) 0.369 0.72 (0.35–1.48) 4/119 (3.4) 0.033 6.40 (1.16–35.39)
 No 72/374 (19.3)   9/376 (2.4)   41/374 (11.0)   2/370 (0.5)  
 Total 107/497 (21.5)    15/500 (3.0)    51/497 (10.3)    6/489 (1.2)   
Travel historyb
 Yes 21/92 (22.8) 0.737 1.10 (0.64–1.89) 7/92 (7.6) 0.010 4.12 (1.45–11.66) 9/92 (9.8) 0.867 0.94 (0.44–2.00) 2/89 (2.2) 0.300 2.28 (0.41–12.62)
 No 86/405 (21.2)   8/408 (2.0)   42/405 (10.4)   4/400 (1.0)  
 Total 107/497 (21.5)    15/500 (3.0)    51/497 (10.3)    6/489 (1.2)   
  1. Abbreviations: ESBL-E Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae; pAmpC-E Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, CIP-RE Ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, CIRE Carbapenem-intermediate or -resistant Enterobacteriaceae; OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  2. aIndicates the presence of at least one gastrointestinal symptom at the time of sample collection
  3. bThe period covers the last six months prior to the study
  4. Statistically significant (p<0.05) results were indicated in bold