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Table 1 Trends in antimicrobial resistance of anaerobes in Pakistan from 2014 to 2017 compared with 2010–2011 [12]

From: Antimicrobial susceptibility against metronidazole and carbapenem in clinical anaerobic isolates from Pakistan

Organisms n = 223 Metronidazole resistance (2014–2017) n (%) Metronidazole resistance (2010–2011) n (%) P value (Pearson chi square) Frequency of isolates tested for imipenem (n = 29) n (%) Imipenem resistance (n = 7) n (%) Imipenem resistance (2010–2011) N = 0/106
Overall resistance (excluding inherent resistance)   39/223 (17.4)) 13/106 (12.3) 0.184 7/29 (24.1) 0/106
Bacteroides fragilis 97 20 (20.6) 6/39 (15.3) 0.483 21 6 0
Bacteroides species 74 16 (21.6) 06/28(18) 0.983 5 1(27) 0
Clostridium species 39 2 (5) 1/32 (3) 0.676 3 0 0
Fusobacterium speciesa 3 0 0/1 (0)
Prevotella speciesa 3 1 (33) 0/6 (0) 0
Cutibacterium species 5 5b
Bifidobacterium speciesa 1 1b  
Eggerthella lenta a 1 1b  
  1. Species marked (a) were included in “Other” category in regression analysis for association with drug resistance
  2. b Species inherently resistant to metronidazole - Organisms inherently resistant to metronidazole were not included in the comparison of metronidazole resistance between the two study periods