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Table 2 Predictors for the unsuccessful treatment of tuberculosis among drug-resistant tuberculosis patients (n = 545)

From: Treatment outcomes of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the Netherlands, 2005–2015

No Predictors Unsuccessful treatment Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis*
No
(n = 520)
Yes
(n = 25)
Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
1 Socio-demographic
 Malea 275 (53) 20 (80) 3.55 (1.31–9.60) 0.008 2.30 (0.79–6.69) 0.13
 Age (years):     0.88 Not included
  18–24 101 (19.4) 5 (20) Ref.
  25–64 385 (74) 19 (76) 0.99 (0.36–2.74)
  65+ 34 (6.5) 1 (4) 0.59 (0.06–5.27)
 Foreign-born patientsa 447 (86.3) 22 (88) 1.12 (0.34–3.99) 0.81 Not included
 Urban domicileb 174 (33.5) 12 (48) 0.55 (0.24–1.22) 0.13 1.85 (0.74–4.63) 0.19
2 Current TB diagnosis
 Pulmonary diagnosis:     0.07   0.39
  ETB 188 (36.2) 3 (12) Ref. Ref.
  PTB 265 (51) 18 (72) 4.26 (1.24–14.66) 2.44 (0.66–9.05)
  ETB + PTB 67 (12.9) 4 (16) 3.74 (0.82–17.15) 2.50 (0.49–12.66)
 Type of TB location:     0.20 Not included
  Lungs 313 (60.2) 20 (80) 2.48 (0.92–6.71)
  Miliary and central nervous system 13 (2.5) 0 (0) n/a
  Others 194 (37.3) 5 (20) Ref.
 Diagnosed by doctors abroad 11 (2.1) 0 (0) n/a
 Type of resistance:     0.03   0.05
  Isoniazid mono−/poly-resistant 365 (70.2) 10 (40) Ref. Ref.
  Rifampicin mono−/poly-resistant 16 (3.1) 1 (4) 2.28 (0.28–18.9) 1.68 (0.19–15.22)
  Pyrazinamide/ ethambutol mono-resistant 43 (8.3) 3 (12) 2.54 (0.68–9.61) 2.96 (0.73–12.07)
  MDR-TB 92 (17.7) 11 (44) 4.36 (1.80–10.59) 4.43 (1.70–11.60)
  XDR-TB 4 (0.8) 0 (0) n/a n/a
3 History of TB disease & treatment
 Previously diagnosed with TBa 55 (11.7) 4 (17.4) 1.59 (0.52–4.83) 0.51 Not included
 Previously treated LTBIa 24 (5.2) 0 (0) n/a 0.62 Not included
4 Risk group of TB
 TB contacts 27 (5.2) 2 (8) 1.59 (0.36–7.09) 0.54 Not included
 Immigrants 65 (12.5) 3 (12) 0.96 (0.28–3.28) 0.94 Not included
 Asylum seekers 81 (15.6) 6 (24) 1.71 (0.66–4.42) 0.26 Not included
 Illegal residence persons 13 (2.5) 1 (4) 1.63 (0.20–12.94) 0.49 Not included
 Homeless individuals 9 (1.7) 6 (24) 17.93 (5.79–55.50) 0.000 9.10 (2.32–35.74) 0.002
 Alcohol dependence 5 (1) 3 (12) 14.05 (3.15–62.54) 0.004 4.35 (0.60–31.31) 0.14
 Substance abuse 12 (2.3) 6 (24) 13.37 (4.53–39.43) 0.000 6.66 (1.72–25.82) 0.006
 Health care workers 4 (0.8) 0 (0) n/a 0.66 Not included
 Travellers from/in endemic areas for more than 3 month 19 (3.7) 0(0) n/a 0.33 Not included
 Prisoners 10 (1.9) 2 (8) 4.44 (0.92–21.42) 0.10 0.43 (0.05–3.94)
5 Comorbidities
 Diabetes 17 (3.3) 1 (4) 1.23 (0.16–9.65) 0.58 Not included
 Malignancy 11 (2.1) 0 (0) n/a 0.46 Not included
 Insufficient renal function or on dialysis 5 (1) 0 (0) n/a 0.62 Not included
 Organ transplantation 2 (0.4) 0 (0) n/a 0.76 Not included
  1. Information: *The cases were analysed using backward elimination method in the multivariate analysis; Hosmer & Lemeshow test 0.88; n/a: not applicable due to small number of event; Ref.: Reference; Not included: the predictor was not included due to p-value > 0.15 in the univariate analysis; amissing value: Gender 1 (0.2%), Country of birth 2 (0.4%), Newly diagnosed TB 53 (9.7%), previous LTBI treatment 58 (10.6%); bUrban domicile: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht; TB, tuberculosis; ETB, extra-pulmonary tuberculosis; PTB, pulmonary tuberculosis; MDR-TB, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; XDR-TB, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis; LTBI, latent tuberculosis infection; CI, confidence interval