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Table 3 Predictors for mortality outcomes due to tuberculosis among drug-resistant tuberculosis patients (n = 545)

From: Treatment outcomes of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the Netherlands, 2005–2015

No Predictors TB-associated mortality Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis*
No
(n = 539; %)
Yes (n = 6; %) Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
1 Socio-demographic
 Malea 292 (54.3) 3 (50) 0.84 (0.17–4.21) 0.83 Not included
 Age (years):     0.07   0.05
  18–24 105 (19.5) 1 (16.7) Ref. Ref.
  25–64 401 (74.4) 3 (50) 0.78 (0.08–7.63) 0.65 (0.06–6.91)
  65+ 33 (6.1) 2 (33.3) 6.36 (0.56–72.44) 8.24 (0.63–107. 05)
 Foreign-born patientsa 464 (86.4) 5 (83.3) 0.78 (0.09–6.83) 0.58 Not included
 Urban domicileb 183 (34) 3 (50) 1.95 (0.39–9.73) 0.42 Not included
2 Current TB diagnosis
 Pulmonary diagnosis:     0.23 Not included
  ETB 191 (35.4) 0 (0) n/a
  PTB 280 (51.9) 3 (50) 0.24 (0.05–1.23)
  ETB + PTB 68 (12.6) 3 (50) Ref.
 Type of TB location:     0.013   0.024
  Lungs 329 (61) 4 (66.7) Ref. Ref.
  Miliary and central nervous system 11 (2) 2 (33.3) 14.96 (2.47–90.52) 15.60 (2.18–111.52)
  Others 199 (36.9) 0 (0) n/a n/a
 Diagnosed by doctors abroad 11 (2) 0 (0) 0 0.72 Not included
 Type of resistance:     0.97 Not included
  Isoniazid mono−/poly-resistant 371 (68.8) 4 (66.7) Ref.
  Rifampicin mono−/poly-resistant 17 (3.2) 0 (0) n/a
  Pyrazinamide/ ethambutol mono-resistant 45 (8.3) 1 (16.7) 2.06 (0.23–18.85)
  MDR-TB 102 (18.9) 1 (16.7) 0.91 (0.10–8.23)
  XDR-TB 4 (0.7) 0 (0) n/a
3 History of TB disease & treatment
 Previously diagnosed with TBa 59 (12.1) 0 (0) n/a 0.41 Not included
 Previously treated LTBIa 24 (5) 0 (0) n/a 0.61 Not included
4 The risk group of TB
 TB contacts 29 (5.4) 0 (0) 0 0.56 Not included
 Immigrants 67 (12.4) 1 (16.7) 1.41 (0.16–12.24) 0.55 Not included
 Asylum seekers 86 (16) 1 (16.7) 1.05 (0.12–9.13) 0.96 Not included
 Illegal residence persons 13 (2.4) 1 (16.7) 8.09 (0.88–74.24) 0.15 8.87 (0.71–111.40) 0.09
 Homeless individual 15 (2.8) 0 (0) n/a 0.68 Not included
 Alcohol dependence 8 (1.5) 0 (0) n/a 0.76 Not included
 Substance abuse 18 (3.3) 0 (0) n/a 0.65 Not included
 Health care workers 4 (0.7) 0 (0) n/a 0.83 Not included
 Travellers from/in endemic areas for more than 3 month 19 (3.5) 0 (0) n/a 0.64 Not included
 Prisoners 12 (2.2) 0 (0) n/a 0.71 Not included
5 Comorbidities
 Diabetes 17 (3.2) 1 (16.7) 6.14 (0.68–55.46) 0.18 Not included
 Malignancy 11 (2) 0 (0) n/a 0.72 Not included
 Insufficient renal function or on dialysis 5 (0.9) 0 (0) n/a 0.81 Not included
 Organ transplantation 2 (0.4) 0 (0) n/a 0.88 Not included
  1. Information: * The cases were analysed using entry method in the multivariate analysis; Hosmer & Lemeshow test 0.85; n/a: not applicable due to small number of event; Ref.: Reference; Not included: the predictor was not included due to p-value > 0.15 in the univariate analysis; amissing value: Gender 1 (0.2%), Country of birth 2 (0.4%), Newly diagnosed TB 53 (9.7%), previous LTBI treatment 58 (10.6%); bUrban domicile: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht; TB, tuberculosis; ETB, extra-pulmonary tuberculosis; PTB, pulmonary tuberculosis; MDR-TB, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; XDR-TB, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis; LTBI, latent tuberculosis infection; CI, confidence interval