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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and health care exposure of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex cases

From: Molecular epidemiological analysis and risk factors for acquisition of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex in a Japanese university hospital

 CREC (n = 39)OR (95% CI)p
CPEC (n = 20)Non-CPEC (n = 19)
Baseline characteristics
 Female sex8 7 1.14 (0.26–5.05)1
 Age (years), median (range)65(0–82)71(0–89) 0.112
 Age group (years)     0.431
  0–183 1   
  19–493 1   
  50–644 2   
  65–798 13   
  801 2   
 Days from admission to positive culture (days), median (range)26.5(1–352)12(0–52) 0.008
 Underlying conditions20 17  0.231
  History of surgery17 12 3.20 (0.58–23.2)0.155
  Any malignancy6 9 0.49 (0.10–2.12)0.333
  Chronic renal insufficiency4 4 0.93 (0.15–6.04)0.939
  Neurological disorder5 3 1.75 (0.28–13.3)0.695
  Congestive heart failure3 4 0.67 (0.08–4.67)0.695
  Diabetes3 3 0.94 (0.11–8.11)1
  Transplant recipient3 1 3.09 (0.22–176)0.605
  Cirrhosis1 1 0.95 (0.01–78.4)1
  Decubitus or pressure ulcer0 1  0.487
  Chronic lung disease1 0  1
  Liver failure1 0  1
  Urinary tract problems or abnormalities0 1  0.487
  Myocardial infarction1 0  1
  HIV positive0 1  0.487
Health care exposure
 Administration of antibiotics within 30 days18 16 1.67 (0.17–22.3)0.661
 Acute care hospitalization within 3 months10 13 0.47 (0.10–2.03)0.333
 Indwelling devices (2 calendar days prior to culture)18 12 5.03 (0.78–57.7)0.065
  Central venous catheter12 7 2.50 (0.60–11.4)0.205
  Nasogastric tube11 7 2.06 (0.49–9.17)0.341
  Drainage tube9 8 1.12 (0.27–4.80)1
   Intraperitoneal drainage tube6 6 0.93 (0.19–4.50)1
   Chest drainage tube4 1 4.34 (0.38–233)0.342
   Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube3 1 3.09 (0.22–176)0.605
   Endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube1 2 0.46 (0.007–9.51)0.605
  Urinary catheter12 4 5.36 (1.14–30.9)0.023
  Intubation (include tracheostomy)12 3 7.53 (1.47–53.8)0.008
  Haemodialysis2 4 0.43 (0.03–3.46)0.407
  1. Note. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, CREC Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex, CPEC Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex