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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristic of all discharged patients: 2013–2017

From: Incidence of healthcare-associated infections in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, China: results from a real-time surveillance system

Characteristic Without HAI
(N = 615132)
With HAI
(N = 18768)
Effect sizea
Sex (n, %)    0.03
 Male 328942 (53.48) 11567 (61.63)  
 Female 286190 (46.52) 7201 (38.37)  
Age (mean, SD) 49.72 (18.85) 53.39 (22.99) 0.17
Length of stay (median, IQR) 7.10 (7.74) 25.05 (20.74) 0.83
Wards (n, %)    0.09
 ICU 19055 (3.10) 2353 (12.54)  
 Non-ICU 596077 (96.90) 16415 (87.46)  
Receiving antibiotics (n, %) 248348 (40.37) 17440 (92.92) 0.18
Receiving surgery (n, %) 198558 (32.28) 5892 (31.39) 0.00
Device-associated operation (n, %)
 Central venous catheter 157778 (25.65) 11065 (58.96) 0.13
 Urinary catheter 170721 (27.75) 10061 (53.61) 0.10
 Ventilator 22390 (3.64) 4871 (25.95) 0.19
  1. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, ICU intensive care unit. aEffect size cutoffs: small (0.2), medium (0.5) and large (0.8), Cramér’s V and Cohen’s d were used to test the nominal and continuous variables’ effect size, respectively