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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Intrinsic and external determinants of antibiotic prescribing: a multi-level path analysis of primary care prescriptions in Hubei, China

Characteristics Overall Urban Community Health Center Rural Township Health Center p*
Number of respondents 499 108 391
Gender, n (%)     < 0.001
 Men 352 (70.54) 53 (49.07) 299 (76.47)  
 Women 147 (29.46) 55 (50.93) 92 (23.53)  
Age, Years (Mean ± SD) 43.38 ± 9.59 48.37 ± 10.26 42.00 ± 8.93 < 0.001
Years of clinical practices 16.28 ± 10.10 18.69 ± 11.40 15.61 ± 9.62 0.015
Qualification < 0.001
 No degree 42 (8.42) 8 (7.41) 34 (8.70)  
 Associate degree 266 (53.31) 38 (35.19) 228 (58.31)  
 University degree 191 (38.28) 62 (57.41) 129 (32.99)  
Professional title     < 0.001
 Junior 257 (51.50) 28 (25.93) 229 (58.57)  
 Middle 191 (38.28) 53 (49.07) 138 (35.29)  
 Senior 51 (10.22) 27 (25.00) 24 (6.14)  
Annual household income (¥+) < 0.001
  < 40,000 143 (28.66) 17 (15.74) 126 (32.23)  
 40,000-79,999 253 (50.70) 47 (43.52) 206 (52.69)  
 80,000–119,999 77 (15.43) 29 (26.85) 48 (12.28)  
  ≥ 120,000 26 (5.21) 15 (13.89) 11 (2.81)  
Training on antibiotic prescribing in 2017 0.001
 Attended 374 (74.95) 68 (62.96) 306 (78.26)  
 Not attended/Not aware 125 (25.05) 40 (37.04) 85 (21.74)  
  1. *Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests (continuous and ordinal variables) or Chi-square tests (binary variables); ¥ represented the Chinese unit of currency, Renminbi (RMB)