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Table 2 Antibiotic prescriptions and associated factors in primary care

From: Intrinsic and external determinants of antibiotic prescribing: a multi-level path analysis of primary care prescriptions in Hubei, China

  Overall UCHCs RTHs p *
Antibiotic prescribing practices of individual physicians (Mean ± SD )
 Percentage of prescriptions containing antibiotics (%) 41.45 ± 20.13 39.55 ± 23.35 41.97 ± 19.15 0.066
 Percentage of prescriptions containing two or more antibiotics (%) 10.23 ± 10.53 7.00 ± 9.82 11.12 ± 10.56 < 0.001
Number (%) of correct answers to antibiotic prescribing knowledge
 K1: Non-febrile diarrhea 475 (95.19) 102 (94.44) 373 (95.40) 0.682
 K2: Upper respiratory tract infections 25 (5.01) 3 (2.78) 22 (5.63) 0.320
 K3: Renal failure 56 (11.22) 8 (7.41) 48 (12.28) 0.156
 K4: Pregnant patients 482 (96.59) 104 (96.30) 378 (96.68) 0.770
 K5: Anaerobes 485 (97.19) 108 (100.00) 377 (96.42) 0.048
 K6: Methicillin resistant staphylococcus 145 (29.06) 35 (32.41) 110 (28.13) 0.386
 K7: Crossing the blood-brain barrier 206 (41.28) 50 (46.30) 156 (39.90) 0.232
 K8: Bacterial pneumonia 232 (46.49) 56 (51.85) 176 (45.01) 0.207
 K9: Reducing complications of upper respiratory tract infections 263 (52.71) 56 (51.85) 207 (52.94) 0.841
 K10: Administration of Aminoglycosides 305 (61.12) 69 (63.89) 236 (60.36) 0.505
 K11: Standards of antibiotic use in primary cares 375 (75.15) 93 (86.11) 282 (72.12) 0.003
 Summed knowledge score (Mean ± SD) 6.11 ± 1.46 6.33 ± 1.42 6.04 ± 1.46 0.073
Score of attitudes toward rational antibiotic prescribing (Mean ± SD)
 A1: Antibiotic resistance is a major public health problem in my setting 3.02 ± 0.90 2.79 ± 1.01 3.09 ± 0.86 0.006
 A2: It is useful to wait for a microbiology result when treating infections 3.34 ± 0.60 3.34 ± 0.66 3.34 ± 0.59 0.710
 A3: One antibiotic prescription does not influence the development of AR 3.04 ± 0.82 2.98 ± 0.96 3.06 ± 0.78 0.781
 A4: New antibiotics will be created to solve AR problems 1.54 ± 0.94 1.74 ± 1.07 1.48 ± 0.89 0.017
 A5: The use of antibiotics in animals is a major cause of AR 2.60 ± 0.91 2.71 ± 0.81 2.57 ± 0.94 0.219
 A6: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are preferred for infections in doubt 1.99 ± 1.02 2.22 ± 1.02 1.92 ± 1.01 0.007
 A7: Antibiotics are often prescribed for patients untrackable 2.89 ± 0.96 3.05 ± 0.95 2.85 ± 0.96 0.035
 A8: It is best to prescribe antibiotics if bacterial infections are uncertain 2.87 ± 0.83 3.01 ± 0.80 2.83 ± 0.84 0.042
 A9: Antibiotics are often prescribed due to patient demands 2.86 ± 0.91 2.77 ± 0.88 2.88 ± 0.92 0.161
 A10: Patients will get antibiotics from a pharmacy even without my prescriptions 1.19 ± 0.94 1.19 ± 0.96 1.20 ± 0.93 0.938
 A11: Amoxicillin is effective for most respiratory infections in primary care 2.22 ± 1.01 2.25 ± 1.05 2.21 ± 1.00 0.737
 Summed attitudes score 27.56 ± 3.46 28.05 ± 3.52 27.42 ± 3.43 0.097
Perceived patient pressure (Mean ± SD)
 Percentage of patients expecting antibiotics 54.91 ± 22.59 50.23 ± 21.48 56.20 ± 22.75 0.001
 Degree of impacts of patient expectation on antibiotic prescribing 43.34 ± 26.41 40.74 ± 25.48 44.05 ± 26.64 0.204
 Total score of perceived patient pressure for antibiotics 25.63 ± 21.41 22.22 ± 21.40 26.57 ± 21.47 0.026
Time pressure (Mean ± SD)
 Length of consultant per visit (Minutes) 10.58 ± 6.47 12.00 ± 6.91 10.18 ± 6.30 0.007
  1. *Chi-square (fisher exact) tests for binary variables, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variable without normal distribution and t tests for continuous variable with normal distribution; Boldface figures indicate the significant differences between physicians in UCHCs and those in RTHs