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Table 1 Advanced wipes in the market and their advantages and disadvantages. [30,31,32,33,34,35]

From: Efficacy of disinfectant-impregnated wipes used for surface disinfection in hospitals: a review

Advanced wipes Description Advantages Disadvantages Ref.
Microfiber wipes Microfiber wipe relates to wipe made from fibres whose diameter is in the range of micro scale. Its cleaning and disinfection efficiency have been evaluated by numerous studies. Some demonstrated that microfiber system has superior microbial removal efficiency compared with cotton string mops. Others stated that the use of microfiber cloth spread the bacteria although there was an overall reduction in bacterial counts on the contaminated surface. [30,31,32,33]
Composite wipes Composite nonwovens wipes are composed of a mixture of fibres and particulates or of fibres that differ in their chemistry, denier or shape in order to provide improved functionality at lower cost. The advantage of composite wipes is their good durability maintaining at the same time good absorbency properties. Different materials composition may limit the production process choice. [30,31,32,33]
Biodegradable wipes The nonwoven fabrics are usually composed of cotton fibres thermal bonded using bio-based thermoplastic polymers. Providing the soft and absorbent property from cotton alongside the increased strength by the synthetic biodegradable fibres. Biodegradable wipes are of great interest for their obvious environmental and sustainability advantages. More cost in the aspect of material [34, 35]
Flushable wipes Flushable nonwoven wipes are designed to be able to be flushed down the wastewater system without adversely impacting plumbing or wastewater infrastructure and operations. A relief to landfill management as waste in the concern of environment protection and sustainable development. Flushable nonwoven is strongly supported by the industry. There is technical difficulty with flushable wipes: the wipe must break down immediately in a toilet bowl and be small enough to be transported from the toilet bowl to the sewage system in a single flush without causing clogging, blockages or equipment failure in the wastewater conveyance and treatment systems but at the same time it has to maintain strong enough to be stored and used when wet. [34]