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Table 1 Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Patients with BSI Caused by E. coli

From: Risk factors and outcomes in non-transplant patients with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli bacteremia: a retrospective study from 2013 to 2016

  Univariate analysis Multivariable analysis
Non- ESBL- producing E. coli ESBL- producing E. coli P-values P-values OR 95% CI for OR
(n = 208) (n = 283) Lower Upper
Demographic
 Male, n (%) 112 (53.8) 150 (53.0) 0.853     
 Age, mean ± SD 60.8 ± 16.7 60.5 ± 16.3 0.836     
Total hospital stay, days (median, IQR) 19 (11–28) 18 (11–37) 0.188     
Hospital stay before BSI, days (median, IQR) 3 (0–13) 4 (1–14) 0.336     
ICU stay prior to BSIa 11 (5.3) 25 (8.8) 0.136     
Preexisting medical conditions
 Hypertension 58 (27.9) 80 (28.3) 0.925     
 Diabetes 34 (16.4) 45 (15.9) 0.876     
 Lung disease 2 (1.0) 6 (2.1) 0.477     
 Cardiovascular diseases 4 (1.9) 7 (2.5) 0.921     
 Hepatobiliary disease 59 (28.4) 78 (27.6) 0.844     
 Urinary system disease 15 (7.2) 25 (8.8) 0.516     
 Nervous system disease 7 (3.4) 8 (2.8) 0.732     
 Malignant solid tumor 43 (20.7) 63 (22.3) 0.673     
 Hematological Disease 39 (18.8) 35 (12.4) 0.051     
Charlson comorbidity score c (median, IQR) 2 (0–2) 2 (0–2) 0.168     
Likely source of BSI
 Central vein Catheter-related infections 7.2 (7.2) 10 (3.5) 0.067     
 Lung infection 52 (25.0) 56 (19.8) 0.168     
 Abdominal infection 108 (51.9) 141 (49.8) 0.646     
 Urinary infection 26 (12.5) 58 (20.5) 0.020 0.014 1.897 1.138 3.164
 Intracranial infection 1 (0.5) 4 (1.4) 0.402     
 Skin infection 6 (2.9) 11(3.9) 0.548     
 Primary bloodstream infection 19 (9.1) 26 (9.2) 0.984     
Nosocomial-acquired infection 124 (59.6) 180 (63.6) 0.368     
Hospitalization prior to BSIb 75 (56.0) 110 (59.1) 0.571     
Surgery prior to BSIa 27 (13.0) 56 (19.8) 0.047     
Invasive procedure and/or devices prior to BSIa 46 (22.1) 83 (29.3) 0.073     
 Mechanical ventilation 7 (3.4) 11 (3.9) 0.761     
 Central venous catheterization 20 (9.6) 42 (14.8) 0.085     
 Urinary catheterization 18 (8.7) 42 (14.8) 0.039     
 Gastric catheterization 10 (4.8) 31(11.0) 0.015     
 Percutaneous catheterization 6 (2.9) 21 (7.4) 0.029 0.101 2.218 0.857 5.742
Hemodialysis prior to BSIa 6 (2.9) 3 (1.1) 0.251     
Chemotherapy or radiotherapy prior to BSIa 38 (18.3) 39 (13.8) 0.177     
Corticosteroid use prior to BSIa 15 (7.2) 21 (7.4) 0.930     
Immunosuppressant use prior to BSIa 1 (0.5) 2 (0.7) > 0.050     
Antibiotics use prior to BSIa 68 (32.7) 134 (47.3) 0.001     
 Cepholosporins 10 (4.8) 38 (13.4) 0.001 0.007 2.767 1.325 5.779
 BLBLI combination antibiotics 26 (12.5) 62 (21.9) 0.007 0.010 1.950 1.173 3.241
 Tigecycline 2 (1.0) 3 (1.1) > 0.050     
 Carbapenems 17 (8.2) 20 (7.1) 0.646     
 Aminoglycosides 1 (0.5) 2 (0.7) > 0.050     
 Quinolones 26 (12.5) 36 (12.7) 0.942     
Laboratory examination
 White blood cell 8.1 (3.8–13.0) 9.6 (5.5–14.8) 0.045     
 Platelet (median, IQR) 104 (42–183) 117 (58–192) 0.161     
 Serum total protein (median, IQR) 57.7 (52.0–64.7) 58.3 (52.3–64.3) 0.949     
Severity of illness
 APACHEII score (median, IQR) 9 (6–12) 9 (6–13) 0.540     
Appropriate empirical treatment after BSI 200 (96.2) 249 (88.3) 0.001     
Appropriate definitive treatments after BSI 204 (98.1) 267 (94.3) 0.039     
7-day mortality 17 (8.2) 24 (8.1) 0.985     
14-day mortality 23 (11.1) 28 (9.9) 0.676     
28-day mortality 29 (13.9) 42 (14.8) 0.780     
  1. Data are expressed as n (%) unless otherwise stated
  2. Abbreviations: ESBL extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor (BLBLI) combination antibiotics, APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, BSI bloodstream infection, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation
  3. aDuring the 30 days preceding BSI onset
  4. bDuring the 3 months preceding BSI onset
  5. cAt time of BSI onset