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Table 1 Definition criteria and antibiotic panel for Enterobacterales (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter sp.)

From: The effect of varying multidrug-resistence (MDR) definitions on rates of MDR gram-negative rods

Antimicrobial categoryECDC-MDRKRINKO-3MRGNKRINKO-4MRGNUHZ-MDR
Antipseudomonal penicillinsPiperacillin/ tazobactam or ticarcillin/ clavulanic acidPiperacillin a)Piperacillin a)Piperacillin/ tazobactam
Extended spectrum cephalosporinsCefotaxime or ceftriaxone or ceftazidime or cefepimeCefotaxime b) or ceftazidimeCefotaxime b) or ceftazidimeCeftriaxone and ceftazidime and cefepime
CarbapenemsErtapenem or imipenem or meropenem or doripenemImipenem or meropenemImipenem or meropenem≥ 2 of: Ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem
QuinolonesCiprofloxacinCiprofloxacinCiprofloxacinCiprofloxacin and levofloxacin
AminoglycosidesAmikacin or gentamicin or tobramycin or netilmicin  ≥2 of: Amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin
MonobactamsAztreonam   
Phosphonic acidsFosfomycin   
non-extended spectrum cepholosporinsCefazolin c) or cefuroxime   
anti-MRSA cephalosporins e)Ceftaroline   
CephamycinsCefoxitin c) or Cefotetan c)   
Folate pathway inhibitorsTrimethoprim/ sulphamethoxazol   
GlycylcyclinesTigecycline   
PenicillinsAmpicillin c) d)   
Penicillins plus beta-lactamase-inhibitorsAmoxicillin/ clavulanic acid c) or ampicillin/ sulbactam c)   
PhenicolsChloramphenicol   
PolymyxinsColistin or polymyxin B   
TetracyclinesTetracycline or doxycycline or minocycline   
Definition of MDRResistant to ≥3 categoriesResistant to antipseudomonal penicillin and cephalosporin-group and quinolone and susceptible to carbapenemsResistant to all 4 categories or if a carbapenem is resistant all Enterobacterales are interpreted as 4MRGN or Enterobacterales with carbapenemase productionResistant to 3 out of 5 categories or ESBL-producing Enterobacterales (except E.coli) or Enterobacterales with carbapenemase production
  1. Abbreviations: ECDC-MDR Multidrug resistance according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, KRINKO-3MRGN Multidrug resistance to three antibiotic categories according to the German Commission of Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention, KRINKO-4MRGN Multidrug resistance to four antibiotic categories according to the German Commission of Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention, MDR Multidrug resistant, UHZ-MDR Multidrug resistance according to University Hospital Zurich guidelines
  2. a) as piperacillin/tazobactam and not piperacillin was tested: Resistance to ceftriaxone and/or ceftazidime was interpreted as resistance to Piperacillin [21]
  3. b) as cefotaxime was not tested, ceftriaxone replaces cefotaxime
  4. c) intrinsic resistance of Enterobacter claocae and Enterobacter aerogenes
  5. d) intrinsic resistance of Klebsiella
  6. e) only approved for E. coli, K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca
  7. Italic font: not tested in UHZ or only tested by MIC under special circumstances