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Table 2 Variables associated with higher antibiotic knowledge in HELIUS study population (N = 21,617) (logistic regression analysis)

From: Knowledge and use of antibiotics in six ethnic groups: the HELIUS study

 UnivariableMultivariable (N = 20,081a)#
OR(95% CI)P-valuesaOR(95% CI)P-values
Sociodemographics
 Ethnicity  <.001  <.001
  DutchRef  Ref  
  South-Asian Surinamese
   1st generation0.490.44–0.55 0.530.47–0.60 
   2nd generation0.560.47–0.67 0.600.50–0.73 
  African Surinamese
   1st generation0.510.46–0.57 0.530.47–0.59 
   2nd generation0.750.62–0.91 0.790.64–0.96 
  Ghanaian
   1st generation0.310.27–0.34 0.310.27–0.35 
   2nd generation0.640.41–0.98 0.740.47–1.18 
  Turkish
   1st generation0.350.31–0.39 0.400.36–0.45 
   2nd generation0.560.48–0.65 0.620.53–0.74 
  Moroccan
   1st generation0.510.45–0.57 0.560.50–0.63 
   2nd generation0.710.61–0.83 0.750.63–0.89 
 Female sex1.181.11–1.25<.0011.321.23–1.40<.001
  Age  <.001  <.001
    < 25 yearsRef  Ref  
   25–34 years1.241.01–1.34 1.321.16–1.50 
   35–44 years0.990.81–1.05 1.301.14–1.49 
   45–54 years0.850.71–0.91 1.191.04–1.37 
   55–64 years0.950.78–1.02 1.261.08–1.45 
    ≥ 65 years1.060.84–1.22 1.150.95–1.39 
  Educational level  <.001   
   UnknownRef     
   No school/elementary school1.100.79–1.55    
   Lower vocational/lower secondary school1.270.91–1.77    
   Intermediate vocational/ intermediate secondary school1.541.11–2.15    
   Higher vocational/university2.061.47–2.87    
  Marital status  <.001   
   Married/registered partnershipRef     
   Cohabiting1.151.04–1.27    
   Unmarried/never married1.081.01–1.16    
   Divorced/separated0.810.74–0.89    
   Widow/widower1.100.88–1.36    
Health status
 Self-reported medical conditions (previous 12 months)
  Diabetes mellitus0.700.63–0.77<.001   
  CVA/one-sided loss of bodily function ≤1 day0.850.75–0.97.015   
  MI incl. ≥half hour chest pain or dotter/bypass operation0.710.65–0.77<.0010.890.81–0.98.017
  Severe heart condition0.610.52–0.73<.001   
  Malignant disorder0.970.78–1.20.752   
  Severe or chronic fatigue0.800.75–0.85<.0010.890.82–0.95.001
  High blood pressure0.780.73–0.84<.001   
  Artery stenosis0.690.61–0.78<.001   
  Respiratory diseases0.680.62–0.75<.0010.800.72–0.88<.001
  Serious/persistent intestinal disorders0.880.79–0.98.024   
  Psoriasis0.760.66–0.89.001   
  (Chronic) eczema0.930.84–1.02.121   
  Incontinence0.840.76–0.93.001   
 Body Mass Index  <.001  .001
   < 18.5Ref  Ref  
  18.5–251.030.81–1.31 1.020.80–1.31 
  25–300.800.63–1.01 0.960.75–1.24 
  30–400.670.52–0.85 0.860.66–1.11 
   ≥ 400.580.43–0.78 0.780.57–1.08 
Smoking  <.001   
  YesRef     
  No, never1.030.96–1.11    
  No, but ever1.191.09–1.30    
 Alcohol usage  <.001   
  NeverRef     
  Not in previous 12 months0.890.80–1.00    
  Monthly or less1.101.01–1.20    
  2–4 times per month1.271.16–1.40    
  2–3 times per week1.351.22–1.49    
   ≥ 4 times per week1.591.42–1.78    
 Difficulty with Dutch language  <.001   
  NoRef     
  Yes0.650.61–0.69    
  Not applicable1.701.56–1.85    
 Perceived health  <.001   
  ExcellentRef     
  Very good0.970.85–1.12    
  Good0.830.73–0.93    
  Mediocre0.630.56–0.72    
  Bad0.480.40–0.57    
Antibiotics
 Ever asked GP for antibiotics  <.001  <.001
  No, neverRef  Ref  
  Yes, regularly0.510.40–0.65 0.600.46–0.77 
  Yes, occasionally0.570.53–0.61 0.590.55–0.64 
 Did not finish treatment  <.001  <.001
  Always finished or no antibioticsRef  Ref  
  Yes, regularly0.510.39–0.67 0.710.54–0.94 
  Yes, occasionally0.730.66–0.80 0.800.73–0.88 
  1. Abbreviations: OR Odds Ratio, aOR adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, CVA Cerebro Vascular Accident, MI Myocardial infarction, GP General Practitioner
  2. aFewer observations in the multivariable model than in the total study population were due to missing observations on certain covariates
  3. #We found significant interactions between ethnicity and sex (p = 0.007) and ethnicity and age (p = 0.047)