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Table 4 Variables associated with having received ≥1 antibiotic prescription in the year prior to HELIUS visit in participants linked to AHD (N = 15,007) (logistic regression analysis)

From: Knowledge and use of antibiotics in six ethnic groups: the HELIUS study

 UnivariableMultivariable excluding variables on antibiotic-related behaviorMultivariable including variables on antibiotic-related behavior
OR(95% CI)P-valuesaOR(95% CI)P-valuesaOR(95% CI)P-values
Sociodemographics
 Ethnicity  <.001  <.001  .004
  DutchRef  Ref  Ref  
  South-Asian Surinamese
   1st generation1.571.33–1.85 1.050.86–1.27 1.040.85–1.26 
   2nd generation1.050.79–1.38 0.950.71–1.28 0.920.68–1.24 
  African Surinamese
   1st generation1.150.98–1.35 0.890.75–1.07 0.880.73–1.05 
   2nd generation1.140.87–1.50 1.020.76–1.36 0.960.71–1.29 
  Ghanaian
   1st generation1.531.30–1.81 1.381.14–1.68 1.281.05–1.56 
   2nd generation1.811.09–3.01 1.921.12–3.27 1.640.94–2.87 
  Turkish
   1st generation1.841.58–2.15 1.070.88–1.31 1.000.82–1.22 
   2nd generation1.271.02–1.57 1.020.80–1.30 1.010.79–1.29 
  Moroccan
   1st generation1.811.55–2.11 1.221.00–1.49 1.150.94–1.41 
   2nd generation1.140.92–1.41 0.930.73–1.19 0.890.69–1.14 
 Female sex1.911.75–2.08<.0011.771.60–1.95<.0011.701.54–1.88<.001
  Age  <.001      
    < 25 yearsRef        
   25–34 years1.040.87–1.24       
   35–44 years1.281.09–1.50       
   45–54 years1.341.15–1.56       
   55–64 years1.421.21–1.66       
    ≥ 65 years1.591.29–1.96       
  Educational level  <.001  .005  .001
   UnknownRef  Ref  Ref  
   No school/elementary school1.410.95–2.09 1.550.93–2.58 1.550.87–2.75 
   Lower vocational/lower secondary school1.050.71–1.55 1.500.90–2.50 1.470.83–2.60 
   Intermediate vocational/ intermediate secondary school0.930.63–1.39 1.430.86–2.39 1.380.78–2.44 
   Higher vocational/university0.660.44–0.99 1.180.71–1.99 1.120.63–2..00 
  Marital status  <.001      
   Married/registered partnershipRef        
   Cohabiting0.660.56–0.77       
   Unmarried/never married0.780.71–0.86       
   Divorced/separated1.141.02–1.27       
   Widow/widower1.260.98–1.64       
Health status
 Self-reported medical conditions (previous 12 months)
  Diabetes mellitus1.751.56–1.96<.0011.291.13–1.47<.0011.301.13–1.48<.001
  CVA/one-sided loss of bodily function ≤1 day1.381.18–1.62<.001      
  MI incl. ≥half hour chest pain or dotter/bypass operation1.781.60–1.98<.0011.281.13–1.45<.0011.241.09–1.40.001
  Severe heart condition1.451.18–1.79.001      
  Malignant disorder1.931.52–2.47<.0011.331.02–1.74.037   
  Severe or chronic fatigue1.861.71–2.02<.0011.201.08–1.33.0011.161.04–1.29.008
  High blood pressure1.361.25–1.49<.001      
  Artery stenosis1.461.25–1.70<.0010.800.67–0.96.0140.770.64–0.92.004
  Respiratory diseases2.191.96–2.44<.0011.661.47–1.87<.0011.591.41–1.81<.001
  Serious/persistent intestinal disorders1.871.64–2.12<.0011.241.07–1.43.0041.221.05–1.41.009
  Psoriasis1.281.05–1.56.015      
  (Chronic) eczema1.301.15–1.47<.001      
  Incontinence2.081.85–2.35<.0011.321.15–1.52<.0011.321.15–1.52<.001
 Body Mass Index  <.001      
   < 18.5Ref        
  18.5–251.030.72–1.46       
  25–301.240.87–1.76       
  30–401.641.15–2.33       
   ≥ 401.971.31–2.97       
 Smoking  .184  <.001  .003
  YesRef  Ref  Ref  
  No, never0.990.90–1.09 0.780.69–0.87 0.820.72–0.92 
  No, but ever0.900.80–1.02 0.910.79–1.04 0.930.81–1.07 
 Alcohol usage  <.001  .017  .012
  NeverRef  Ref  Ref  
  Not in previous 12 months0.880.77–1.02 0.960.82–1.12 0.950.81–1.12 
  Monthly or less0.680.61–0.77 0.830.72–0.95 0.820.71–0.94 
  2–4 times per month0.730.64–0.83 0.930.79–1.09 0.920.78–1.08 
  2–3 times per week0.640.55–0.75 0.920.76–1.10 0.890.74–1.08 
   ≥ 4 times per week0.480.39–0.58 0.700.55–0.88 0.680.54–0.86 
 Difficulty with Dutch language<.001      
  NoRef        
  Yes1.321.21–1.43       
  Not applicable0.800.71–0.91       
 Perceived health  <.001  <.001  .002
  ExcellentRef  Ref  Ref  
  Very good1.090.86–1.37 1.050.83–1.34 1.030.80–1.31 
  Good1.551.27–1.90 1.220.99–1.51 1.200.97–1.49 
  Mediocre2.472.01–3.04 1.371.09–1.72 1.321.05–1.67 
  Bad3.853.02–4.91 1.691.28–2.23 1.591.20–2.11 
Antibiotic-related behavior
 Higher antibiotic knowledge  <.001      
  NoRef        
  Yes0.770.71–0.84       
 Ever asked GP for antibiotics  <.001     <.001
  No, neverRef     Ref  
  Yes, regularly4.723.59–6.21    3.072.28–4.14 
  Yes, occasionally2.422.20–2.66    2.111.91–2.34 
 Did not finish treatment  <.001     <.001
  Always finished or no antibioticsRef     Ref  
  Yes, regularly2.702.02–3.62    1.801.29–2.50 
  Yes, occasionally1.621.45–1.83    1.321.16–1.50 
  1. Abbreviations: OR Odds Ratio, aOR adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, CVA Cerebro Vascular Accident, MI Myocardial infarction, GP General Practitioner