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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of adult inpatients with Clostridium difficile infections (CDI)

From: Risk prediction for 30-day mortality among patients with Clostridium difficile infections: a retrospective cohort study

VariablesaTotal (N = 401)30-Day Mortalityp-valuea
Died (N = 94)Did not die (N = 307)
Age at index date, years
 Mean (standard deviation)68.215.872.513.266.916.40.001b
  ≥ 65 years old23458.4%6367.0%17155.7%0.051
Male23759.1%5962.8%17858.0%0.409
Comorbidity within 1 year priorc
 Diabetes mellitus20150.1%5053.2%15149.2%0.497
 Renal disease15839.4%3537.2%12340.1%0.623
 Inflammatory bowel disease61.5%11.1%51.6%0.372b
 Malignancy15438.4%5053.2%10433.9%0.001
Hospital admission within 90 days prior18245.4%4952.1%13343.3%0.134
Antibiotic use within 30 days prior
 Cephalosporins17042.4%3941.5%13142.7%0.839
 Fluoroquinolones8120.2%2021.3%6119.9%0.766
 Carbapenems10024.9%2526.6%7524.4%0.671
 Anti-peptic ulcer agentsd29673.8%6872.3%22874.3%0.710
APACHE II score prior to CDIe15.0(10.0, 20.0)18.0(11.0, 21.0)15.0(10.0, 20.0)0.036
Fever (≥38 °C) at index CDI22359.3%5970.2%16456.2%0.021
Anti-diarrhea medicationsf22556.1%5154.3%17456.7%0.679
Stool routine
 Presence of mucus5215.6%1014.1%4216.0%0.689
 Positive for red blood cell12136.3%2636.6%9536.3%0.955
 Positive for WBC11534.5%2433.8%9134.7%0.884
C. difficile toxin or culture
 Toxin testg21754.1%4952.1%16854.7%0.659
 Culture only18445.9%4547.9%13945.3% 
Biochemical profiles at index CDIh
 White blood cell count (WBC), cells/mm312,000(8300, 17,100)13,700(8600, 20,900)11,700(8100, 16,400)0.014
 First tertile: < 944012933.0%2728.7%10234.3%0.017
 Second tertile: 9440 to < 14,60012632.2%2324.5%10334.7% 
 Third tertile: ≥14,60013634.8%4446.8%9231.0% 
 WBC > 15,00012632.2%4143.6%8528.6%0.007
Serum creatinine (SCr), mg/dL
 Premorbid SCri1.01(0.67, 2.05)0.97(0.60, 1.56)1.03(0.69, 2.30)0.392
 Index SCr1.41(0.81, 3.74)1.64(0.90, 3.66)1.34(0.76, 3.82)0.224
 Rise in SCr level       
  ≥ 1.5-fold11334.9%4655.4%6727.8%< 0.001
  ≥ 1.5045 mg/dL5617.3%1922.9%3715.4%0.1172
  ≥ 1.5-fold or ≥ 1.5045 mg/dL12338.0%4857.8%7531.1%< 0.001
eGFR (CKD-EPI)j, ml/min/1.73m251.4(17.3, 91.0)47.3(16.7, 88.3)52.5(17.6, 92.5)0.623
BUN, mg/dL29.0(14.0, 60.0)41.0(21.0, 85.0)25.0(13.0, 52.5)< 0.001
 First tertile: < 1711030.8%1416.5%9635.3%0.004
 Second tertile: 17 to < 4412133.9%3338.8%8832.4% 
 Third tertile: ≥4412635.3%3844.7%8832.4% 
 BUN > 2618852.7%5564.7%13348.9%0.011
BUN-to-SCr ratio18.8(12.2, 30.1)26.1(17.6, 36.8)16.8(11.1, 27.3)< 0.001
 Index BUN-to-SCr > 2017047.6%5969.4%11140.8%< 0.001
Albumin, g/dL2.50(2.20, 2.90)2.35(2.00, 2.80)2.60(2.20, 3.00)0.003
 Albumin < 2.58944.3%3356.9%5639.2%0.022
 Albumin < 315577.1%5086.2%10573.4%0.051
Serum glucose, mg/dL162(129, 222)192(151, 232)158(127, 208)0.002
 First tertile: < 14210732.7%1316.9%9437.6%0.001
 Second tertile: 142 to < 19310833.0%2633.8%8232.8% 
 Third tertile: ≥19311234.3%3849.4%7429.6% 
  1. Abbreviations: APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, BUN blood urea nitrogen level, CDI C. difficile infections, CI confidence interval, eGFR estimated Glomerular filtration rate, HR hazard ratio, IQR interquartile range, SCr serum creatinine, WBC white blood cell count
  2. aContinuous variables were presented as median and IQRs and analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, if not otherwise indicated. Categorical variables were presented as frequency and proportion (%) and analyzed using chi-square test, if not otherwise indicated. P-values that were < 0.05 are shown in bold.
  3. bMean age and the proportion of inflammatory bowel disease were analyzed using two-sample t-test and Fisher’s exact test, respectively.
  4. cDiabetes mellitus was defined according to the patients’ ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and the use of glucose-lowering agents. Renal disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and malignancy were defined using the ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes.
  5. dUse of anti-peptic ulcer agents of proton-pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists within 0 to 14 days of the index CDI.
  6. eAPACHE II score was only available for patients admitted to intensive care units (N = 211).
  7. fUse of anti-diarrhea medications or probiotics within 0 to 14 days of the index CDI.
  8. gIncluded 158 patients (39.4%) with positive toxin genes test and 59 patients (14.7%) with positive C. difficile toxin enzyme immunoassay test.
  9. hWe obtained the maximum WBC, maximum index SCr, closest BUN, minimum albumin, and closest glucose values that were measured within −3 to + 3 days of the index CDI.
  10. iFor premorbid SCr, we obtained the minimum SCr that were measured within − 30 to −4 days of the index CDI.
  11. jeGFR was estimated by CKD-EPI equation (Levey 2009).