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Table 2 The prevalence of AGRs among human, animal, food and water obtained from a subset 304 samples from 40 households

From: An exploration of the gut and environmental resistome in a community in northern Vietnam in relation to antibiotic use

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs)Human (n, %)
n = 93
Animal (n, %) n = 45Food (n, %) n = 75Water (n, %) n = 91
mcr-182 (88)b, c42 (93)d, e10 (13)b, d, f2 (2)c, e, f
mcr-20 (0)0 (0)1 (1)0 (0)
mcr-351 (55)b, c23 (51)d, e21 (28)b, d, f6 (7)c, e, f
mcr-40 (0)1 (2)1 (1)0 (0)
mcr-50 (0)2 (4)3 (4)5 (6)
blaNDM,4 (4)b2 (4)10 (13)b14 (15)
blaKPC0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
blaOXA-480 (0)b0 (0)6 (8)b, f2 (2)f
blaVIM0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
CTX-M-135 (38)b, c15 (33)d, e5 (7)b, d2 (2)c, e
CTX-M-217 (18)c6 (13)e17 (22)f0 (0)c, f
CTXM-957 (61)a,b,c13 (29)a,d,e2 (3)b, d0 (0)c, e
qnrA9 (9)a22 (49)a,d,e9 (12)d, f5 (6)e, f
qnrS93 (100)a,b,c41 (91)a,d,e59 (78)b, d, f30 (33)c,e,f
  1. Differential proportion of ARGs among sample types was compared using Pearson’s Chi square or Fisher’s exact. Letters a,b,c,d,e,f indicate statistically significant differences (P-value< 0.05) between two sample types (ahuman animal, bhuman and food, chuman and water, danimal and food, eanimal and water, fwater and food)