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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses of predictors for the concordant pulsotypes of paired vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization and infection isolates

From: Predictors for vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium transforming from colonization to infection: a case control study

PredictorsaPatients infected with the concordant pulsotypes (n = 56)Patients infected with the discordant pulsotypes (n = 41)Univariable OR (95% CI)PMultivariablec OR (95% CI)P
Demographics
 Age (y)70.9 (60.0–78.6)65.6 (55.2–77.4)1.01 (0.98–1.04)0.56  
 Gender30 (53.6)18 (43.9)1.47 (0.66–3.31)0.35  
Comorbid conditions at identification
 Charlson score4.0 (2.5–5.0)4.0 (3.0–6.0)0.95 (0.81–1.12)0.55  
 Myocardial infarction3 (5.4)1 (2.4)2.26 (0.23–22.59)0.46  
 Congestive heart failure4 (7.1)6 (14.6)0.45 (0.12–1.71)0.23  
 Peripheral occlusive arterial disease1 (1.8)0 (0)NANA  
 Cerebrovascular diseases6 (10.7)10 (24.4)0.37 (0.12–1.13)0.080.22 (0.06–0.78)0.02
 Hemiplegia3 (5.4)3 (7.3)0.72 (0.14–3.75)0.69  
 Dementia6 (10.7)0 (0)NANA  
 Chronic pulmonary disease4 (7.1)3 (7.3)0.97 (0.21–4.61)0.97  
 Connective tissue disease2 (3.6)1 (2.4)1.48 (0.13–16.91)0.75  
 Peptic ulcer disease11 (19.6)8 (19.5)1.01 (0.37–2.78)0.99  
 Mild liver diseases6 (10.7)8 (19.5)0.50 (0.16–1.56)0.23  
 Moderate-to-severe liver diseases5 (8.9)2 (4.9)1.91 (0.35–10.38)0.44  
 Moderate-to-severe renal diseases22 (39.3)17 (41.5)0.91 (0.40–2.08)0.83  
 Diabetes mellitus without end organ damage21 (37.5)14 (34.2)1.16 (0.50–2.69)0.73  
 Diabetes mellitus with end organ damage3 (5.4)4 (9.8)0.52 (0.11–2.48)0.41  
 Solid tumor without metastases11 (19.6)10 (24.4)0.76 (0.29–2.00)0.58  
 Metastatic solid tumor4 (7.1)3 (7.3)0.97 (0.21–4.61)0.97  
 Leukemia8 (14.3)9 (22.0)0.59 (0.21–1.70)0.33  
 Lymphoma2 (3.6)2 (4.9)0.72 (0.10–5.35)0.75  
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome1 (1.8)0 (0)NANA  
Healthcare factors within 30 days before EOF
 Receipt of solid organ transplantation0 (0)0 (0)NANA  
 Receipt of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation1 (1.8)2 (4.9)0.35 (0.03–4.05)0.40  
 New receipt of hemodialysis10 (17.9)5 (12.2)1.57 (0.49–4.99)0.45  
 ICU admission45 (80.4)20 (48.8)4.30 (1.75–10.56)0.0013.74 (1.38–10.13)0.009
 GI intervention9 (16.1)4 (9.8)1.77 (0.51–6.21)0.37  
 Steroid use26 (46.4)24 (58.5)0.61 (0.27–1.38)0.24  
 Chemotherapy8 (14.3)10 (24.4)0.52 (0.18–1.45)0.21  
 Parental hyperalimentation25 (44.6)15 (36.6)1.40 (0.61–3.19)0.42  
 Neutropenia9 (16.1)5 (12.2)1.38 (0.43–4.47)0.59  
 Mechanical ventilator34 (60.7)15 (36.6)2.68 (1.17–6.15)0.02  
 Indwelling urinary catheter25 (44.6)13 (31.7)1.74 (0.75–4.03)0.20  
 Central venous catheters51 (91.1)36 (87.8)1.42 (0.38–5.26)0.60  
Antibiotics use within 30 days before EOF
 Antipseudomonal penicillin12 (21.4)8 (19.5)1.13 (0.41–3.06)0.82  
 Penicillins combined with β-lactamases inhibitors0 (0)2 (4.9)NANA  
 First-generation cephalosporin0 (0)0 (0)NANA  
 Second-generation cephalosporin4 (7.1)2 (4.9)1.50 (0.26–8.60)0.65  
 Third-generation cephalosporin16 (28.6)16 (39.0)0.63 (0.27–1.47)0.28  
 Fourth-generation cephalosporin18 (32.4)11 (26.8)1.29 (0.53–3.15)0.57  
 Carbapenem24 (42.9)16 (39.0)1.17 (0.52–2.66)0.71  
 Fluoroquinolone9 (16.1)18 (43.9)0.24 (0.10–0.63)0.0030.35 (0.12–1.02)0.05
 Metronidazole4 (7.1)3 (7.3)0.97 (0.21–4.61)0.97  
 Aminoglycoside6 (10.7)2 (4.9)2.34 (0.45–12.24)0.31  
 Glycopeptide12 (21.4)17 (41.5)0.39 (0.16–0.94)0.04  
 Tigecycline2 (3.6)1 (2.4)1.48 (0.13–16.91)0.75  
 Daptomycin5 (8.9)3 (7.3)1.24 (0.28–5.52)0.78  
 Linezolid8 (14.3)6 (14.6)0.97 (0.31–3.05)0.96  
 SXT4 (7.1)5 (12.2)0.55 (0.14–2.21)0.40  
 Othersb9 (16.1)10 (24.4)0.59 (0.22–1.63)0.31  
Infection type
 BSI vs. other types of infection24 (42.9)16 (39.0)1.17 (0.52–2.66)0.71  
 Early infection36 (64.3)13 (31.7)3.88 (1.64–9.12)0.0013.34 (1.25–8.91)0.02
 Common PFTs of colonization isolatesd18 (32.1)16 (39.2)0.74 (0.32–1.72)0.48  
  1. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range, OR odds ratios, CI confidence interval, NA not applicable, ICU intensive care unit, EOF end of follow-up, SXT Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, BSI bloodstream infections, PFTs pulsotypes
  2. aData are median values (interquartile range) for continuous variables and number of cases (percentage) for categorical variables. Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare continuous variables, and χ2 or Fisher exact test was used to compare categorical variables
  3. bOther antimicrobials: numbers of patients receiving of colistin, penicillin, macrolides, and clindamycin were 3, 4, 2, and 2 in case group, and 7, 1, 1, and 1 in control group. A patient may receive more than one antibiotic within 30 days before end of follow-up
  4. cPearson goodness-of-fit test P = 0.5574 > 0.05 (df = 15); Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test P = 0.5578 > 0.05 (df = 7)
  5. dCommon PFTs consist of PFT 1, PFT 6, PFT 16, PFT 23, and PFT 28