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Table 3 Antibiotics prescribed to hospitalized patients (n = 2022)

From: Pattern of inappropriate antibiotic use among hospitalized patients in Pakistan: a longitudinal surveillance and implications

Antibiotic (ATC codes)Frequency prescribed (N)Percentage (%)
Penicillins28314
 Narrow and broad spectrum12042.4
  Ampicillin (J01CA01)140.7
  Amoxicillin (J01CA04)271.3
  Penicillin v (J01 CE08)793.9
 Combination with β-lactamase inhibitor16357.6
  Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (J01CR02)1145.6
  Piperacillin + tazobactam (J01CR05)492.4
Cephalosporins93346.1
 1st generation11412.2
  Cephalexin (J01DB01)310.2
  Cefazolin (J01DB04)864.3
  Cephradine (J01DB09)251.3
 2nd generation838.9
  Cefuroxime (J01 DC02)723.6
  Cefaclor (J01 DC04)110.5
 3rd generation72978.1
  Cefotaxime (J01DD01)231.4
  Ceftazidime (J01DD02)200.9
  Ceftriaxone (J01DD04)42321
  Cefixime (J01DD08)321.6
  Cefoperazone and salbactum (J01DD62)23111.4
 4th generation70.80
  Cefepime (J01DE01)70.3
Carbapenems311.5
 Imipenem (J01DH51)90.4
 Meropenem (J01DH02)221
Macrolides592.9
 Erythromycin (J01FA01)40.2
 Clarithromycin (J01FA09)482.4
 Azithromycin (J01FA10)70.3
Aminoglycosides31515.6
 Gentamicin (J01GB03)80.4
 Amikacin (J01GB06)30715.2
Fluoroquinolones1939.5
 Ciprofloxacin (J01MA02)1306.4
 Levofloxacin (J01MA12)170.8
 Moxifloxacin (J01MA14)412
 Ofloxacin (J01MA01)30.1
 Norfloxacin (J01MA06)20.09
Others Antibacterials20810.4
 Vancomycin (J01XA01)804.0
 Metronidazole (J01XD01)1195.9
 Linezolid (J01XX08)90.5