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Table 4 Inappropriate antibiotic Usage (n = 2022)

From: Pattern of inappropriate antibiotic use among hospitalized patients in Pakistan: a longitudinal surveillance and implications

AntibioticsInappropriate indication
N (%)
Inappropriate dosage
N (%)
Inappropriate treatment
N (%)
Penicillins173 (61.1)140 (49.5)201 (71.0)
 Narrow/broad spectrum81 (67.5)92 (76.7)102 (85.0)
 With β-lactamase inhibitor92 (56.4)48 (29.5)99 (60.7)
Cephalosporins470 (50.4)418 (44.8)627 (67.2)
 1st generation37 (32.5)72 (86.7)92 (80.7)
 2nd generation32 (38.5)49 (59.1)66 (79.5)
 3rd generation395 (54.2)293 (40.2)463 (63.5)
 4th generation6 (85.7)4 (57.1)6 (85.7)
Carbapenems20 (76.6)18 (58.1)22 (70.9)
Macrolides37 (62.7)29 (49.2)44 (74.6)
Aminoglycosides67 (21.2)84 (26.6)113 (35.8)
Fluoroquinolones71 (36.8)108 (55.9)124 (64.2)
Others Antibacterial67 (32.2)133 (63.9)152 (73.1)