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Table 1 Characteristics of ARISE survey participants from the EU/EEA, 2017 (n = 1062)

From: European intensive care physicians’ experience of infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria

 European sub-regionTotalP-value
EasternNorthernSouthernWestern
Total replies [n (%)]a94(8.9)233(21.9)248(23.4)487(45.9)1062(100) 
Hospital and ICU characteristics
 Type of hospital [n, (%)]b
 General hospital35(37.2)100(42.9)124(50.0)192(39.4)451(42.5)< 0.05
 University/teaching59(62.8)133(57.1)124(50.0)295(60.6)611(57.5) 
Type of ICU [n (%)]b
 Medical ICU10(10.6)6(2.6)22(8.9)53(10.9)91(8.6)< 0.001
 Surgical ICU5(5.3)5(2.1)12(4.8)112(23.0)134(12.6) 
 Mixed ICU66(70.2)197(84.5)184(74.2)289(59.3)736(69.3) 
 Other ICU13(13.8)25(10.7)30(12.1)33(6.8)101(9.5) 
Number of beds in the ICU [Median (IQR)]
 10(6–13.5)12(8–20)10(8–15)14(10–20)12(8–18)< 0.001
Number of yearly ICU admissions [n (%)]b
  ≤ 30029(30.9)15(6.4)57(23.0)25(5.1)126(11.9)< 0.001
 301–60044(46.8)62(26.6)101(40.7)160(32.9)367(34.6) 
 601–120013(13.8)101(43.3)65(25.8)190(39.0)368(34.7) 
  > 12005(5.3)53(22.7)22(8.9)105(21.6)185(17.4) 
 Missing3(3.2)2(0.9)4(1.6)7(1.4)16(1.5) 
Characteristics of participating ICU physicians
 Training status [n (%)]b
  ICU specialist78(83.0)178(76.4)208(83.9)386(79.3)850(80.0)< 0.05
  Medical specialist1(1.1)5(2.1)13(5.2)25(5.1)44(4.1) 
  Surgery specialist0(0.0)0(0.0)0(0.0)2(0.4)2(0.2) 
  In training for ICU specialist9(9.6)35(15.0)16(6.5)40(8.2)100(9.4) 
  Other1(1.1)7(3.0)0(0.0)4(0.8)12(1.1) 
  Missing5(5.3)8(3.4)11(4.4)30(6.2)54(5.1) 
 Years of clinical practice in ICU [Median (IQR)]
 20(11.25–33.5)15(8–26)15(8–26)18(8–35)17(8–32.75)NS
 Percentage of time dedicated to ICU [Median (IQR)]
 61(51–83.5)61(51–81)96(71–100)81(51–100)80(51–100)< 0.001
 Perception of MDR bacteria [n (%)]b
  Minor problem17(18.1)115(49.4)63(25.4)196(40.2)391(36.8)< 0.001
  Moderate problem34(36.2)79(33.9)80(32.3)167(34.3)360(33.9) 
  Major problem38(40.4)31(13.3)94(37.9)94(19.3)257(24.2) 
  Missing5(5.3)8(3.4)11(4.4)30(6.2)54(5.1) 
 Antibiotic therapy prescription [n (%)]b
  Commonly25(26.6)60(25.8)84(33.9)179(36.8)348(32.8)NS
  Often55(58.5)141(60.5)140(56.5)254(52.2)590(55.6) 
  Rarely14(14.9)32(13.7)24(9.7)54(11.1)124(11.7) 
Management of antimicrobial treatment
 External specialist consultation in case of resistant or difficult to treat infections [n (%)]b
  Infectious disease specialist18(19.1)91(39.1)140(56.5)306(62.8)555(52.3)< 0.001
  Other external specialists62(66.0)133(57.1)41(16.5)115(23.6)351(33.1) 
  No consultation of external specialists9(9.6)1(0.4)53(21.4)32(6.6)95(8.9) 
  Missing/Do not know5(5.3)8(3.4)14(5.6)34(7.0)61(5.7) 
 Availability of protocols for empiric treatment in the ICU [n (%)]b
  Yes61(64.9)217(93.1)175(70.6)311(63.9)764(71.9)< 0.001
  No28(29.8)6(2.6)58(23.4)138(28.3)230(21.7) 
  Do not know0(0.0)1(0.4)2(0.8)5(1.0)8(0.8) 
  Missing5(5.3)9(3.9)13(5.2)33(6.8)60(5.6) 
 Type of guidelines/protocols/recommendations used for antimicrobial treatment [n (%)]b
  ICU-specific48(51.1)117(50.2)118(47.6)236(48.5)519(48.9)NS
  Other (hospital-specific, national or international)29(30.9)91(39.1)84(33.9)155(31.8)359(33.8) 
  None of the above3(3.2)0(0.0)5(2.0)13(2.7)21(2.0) 
  Do not know2(2.1)1(0.4)1(0.4)3(0.6)7(0.7) 
  Missing12(12.8)24(10.3)40(16.1)80(16.4)156(14.7) 
 Availability of resistance statistics for the ICU [n (%)]b
  Regularly58(61.7)111(47.6)142(57.3)261(53.6)572(53.9)< 0.001
  Irregularly15(16.0)51(21.9)46(18.5)84(17.2)196(18.5) 
  Not at all7(7.4)18(7.7)15(6.0)36(7.4)76(7.2) 
  Do not know2(2.1)29(12.4)5(2.0)28(5.7)64(6.0) 
  Missing12(12.8)24(10.3)40(16.1)78(16.0)154(14.5) 
  1. EU/EEA European Union/European Economic Area; ICU Intensive Care Unit; n number; IQR interquartile range; MDR Multi-drug resistance
  2. aPercentage of all respondents
  3. bPercentage of respondents by European region