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Table 2 Multivariate analysis of factors associated with a higher ranking of perception of AMR as a problem among ARISE participants from the EU/EEA

From: European intensive care physicians’ experience of infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria

CharacteristicsUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
Odds Ratio95% CIP-valueAdjusted Odds Ratio95% CIP-value
European sub-region
 Western1  1  
 Eastern2.951.93–4.53< 0.0013.091.94–4.92< 0.001
 Northern0.700.51–0.94< 0.050.860.62–1.20NS
 Southern2.331.74–3.13< 0.0012.671.94–3.69< 0.001
Type of hospital
 General hospital1  1  
 University/teaching1.301.03–1.64<–1.70NS (0.06)
Type of ICU
 Medical ICU1  1  
 Surgical ICU0.750.45–1.24NS0.920.54–1.56NS
 Mixed ICU0.610.40–0.92< 0.050.730.47–1.13NS
 Other ICU0.560.32–0.96< 0.050.540.30–0.95< 0.05
 Number of beds in the ICU1.011.00–1.02NS   
 Years of clinical practice in ICU1.000.99–1.01NS   
Number of yearly ICU admissions
  ≤ 3001  1  
 601–12001.561.21–2.01< 0.0011.431.10–1.87< 0.05
  > 12000.900.73–1.11NS0.910.73–1.13NS
Training status
 ICU specialist1     
 Other specialty0.920.58–1.46NS   
 Percentage of time dedicated to ICU1.001.00–1.01NS   
External specialist consultation in case of difficult to treat infections
 Consultation of external specialists1     
 No consultation of external specialists1.180.80–1.74NS   
Availability of protocols for empiric treatment in the ICU
 Yes1  1  
 No1.791.36–2.35< 0.0011.591.19–2.13< 0.05
Type of guidelines/protocols used for antimicrobial treatment
 Other (hospital-specific, national or international)1.060.83–1.36NS   
 None of these1.400.63–3.12NS   
Availability of resistance statistics for the ICU
 Not at all1.040.67–1.63NS   
 Do not know0.710.44–1.16NS   
  1. CI confidence interval; ICU intensive care unit; NS not significant, p > 0.05