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Table 2 Knowledge about Hand Hygiene Key Principles: Pre- and Post-Course Evaluation among Train-The-Trainers Participants by Country and Regions

From: Train-the-Trainers in hand hygiene: a standardized approach to guide education in infection prevention and control

CountrySample sizePercentage (Pre)Percentage (Post)z-scoreP-value
Knowledge
 Thailand5362.70%77.90%3.0590.002
 Malaysia8148.40%65.30%4.3440
 Spain2184.50%90.10%1.070.285
 Iran3672.90%87.10%2.6380.008
 South Africa3060.60%83.40%3.8850
 Mexico (Puebla)3554.40%79.40%3.8060
 Mexico (Jalisco)4949.50%70.20%4.2260
Hand hygiene WHO methodology
 Thailand5352.50%77.50%4.6880
 Malaysia8161.80%89.10%5.6350
 Spain2171.90%93.80%2.070.038
 Iran3676.90%94.60%2.8840.004
 South Africa3048.00%69.70%2.4140.016
 Mexico (Puebla)3565.70%88.30%3.220.001
 Mexico (Jalisco)4955.90%77.60%3.1860.001
Clinical Scenarios
 Thailand5333.80%52.90%5.1140
 Malaysia8143.90%67.20%5.0830
 Spain2161.90%71.40%0.6550.516
 Iran3644.60%65.10%2.7440.006
 South Africa3023.30%30.80%0.8260.407
 Mexico (Puebla)3537.10%55.00%2.2030.028
 Mexico (Jalisco)4925.20%51.40%4.6760
  1. Footnote: Pre- and post-course percentages of correct answers on three sections of the questionnaire 1) Knowledge about microbial transmission, healthcare-associated infections and key principles for hand hygiene best practices, 2) WHO methodology for hand hygiene observation, 3) clinical scenarios based on My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene