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Table 2 Disease and infection control methods among farmers (N = 88)

From: Antibiotic use in chicken farms in northwestern China

Variablesn (%)
Top 5 diseases
Escherichia coli infection65 (73.9)
 Avian influenzaa60 (68.2)
 Avian infectious laryngotracheitisa41 (46.6)
 Newcastle diseasea37 (42.0)
 Pullorum disease36 (40.9)
Use of vaccination
 Compulsory (>  1 type)79 (89.8)
 Optional (>  2 types)79 (89.8)
 Use of traditional Chinese medicine77 (87.5)
 Use of antibiotics86 (97.7)
 Use of antibiotics during withdrawal periods13 (14.8)
 Use of antibiotics on the prohibited list66 (75.0)
Primary purpose of antibiotic use
 Prevention43 (48.9)
 Treatment22 (25.0)
 Both prevention and treatment22 (25.0)
 Growth promotion1 (1.1)
Frequency of antibiotic use
 Occasionally54 (61.4)
 Regularly34 (38.6)
Common route of antibiotic administration
 Mixed with food and/or water86 (97.7)
 Injection or forced feeding9 (10.2)
 Kept a record of antibiotic use33 (37.5)
 Able to purchase antibiotics without a prescription52 (59.1)
Sources of drugs
 Veterinary drug store71 (80.7)
 Pharmacy store/Online/Feed factory16 (18.2)
  1. a Viral infectious disease