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Table 1 Characteristics of the eligible studies

From: Risk factors for quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study (year)Study designYears enrolledStudy regionCase/control, nMale sex,
case/control, n
Mean age
(SD or range), case/control, years
Drug resistance patternRisk of biasaOutcomes of interest
Pena et al. (1995)Case- control1988–1992Spain27/5415/24N/ACiprofloxacin-resistant3/1/2/6Age, underlying diseases, acquisition, source of infection, immunosuppressive drugs, prior quinolones, prior other antibiotics
Garau et al. (1999)Case- control1992–1997Spain70/50244/26470.2(13)/ 65.8(18.4)Ciprofloxacin-resistant4/2/2/8Age, sex, underlying disease, acquisition, source of infection, urinary catheter, prior antibiotic use, prior quinolone use, mortality
Cheong et al. (2001)Case- control1993–1998Korea40/8028/3351/54Norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin-resistant4/1/2/7Age, sex, chronic underlying disease, source of bacteremia, urinary catheter, prior antibiotic use acquisition, APACHE II score, duration of antibiotic treatment, death
Sotto et al. (2001)Case- control1998–1999France17/3037/67N/ANorfloxacin, pefloxacin, ofloxacin, or ciprofloxacin-resistant4/1/2/7Age, sex, unit of hospitalization, urinary catheter, nosocomial acquisition, prior hospitalization, prior UTI, prior urinary catheter, prior antibiotic exposure
Eom et al. (2001)Case- control1996–2000Korea60/8016/2458/40Ciprofloxacin-resistant4/1/2/7Age, sex, UTIs, chronic underlying illness, urinary catheter, neurogenic bladder, recurrent UTI, previous admission, operation, prior use of fluoroquinolone, prior use of other antibiotics, duration of previous antibiotics, site of acquisition, hospitals, mortality
Lautenbach et al. (2002)Case- control1998–1999USA123/7052/2075 (32–100)/ 67 (22–99)Levofloxacin-resistant4/2/2/8Age, hospital, admitted from long-term care facility, race, admitted from outside hospital diarrhea, sex, APACHE II score, hospitalized in past 30 d, hospital duration, central venous catheter, urinary catheter, mechanical ventilation, patient location
Huotari et al. (2003)Case- control1997–1999Finland51/10221/3162.6 (20–90)/ 67.1 (21–96)Norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin-resistant4/1/1/6Age, time from admission to isolation in days, sex, prior fluoroquinolone therapy, prior therapy with other antimicrobial agent, urinary tract abnormalities, immunosuppression, surgery, organ transplant
Killgore et al. (2004)Case- control2001.01–12USA40/807/1161 (59)/ 51 (53)Ciprofloxacin-resistant4/1/2/7Age, sex, urinary tract symptoms, previous ciprofloxacin use, previous use of quinolone, previous use of other antibiotic, urinary tract abnormality, catheter, comorbidity, previous surgery, previous hospitalization, recurrent UTI
Maslow et al. (2005)Case- control2002.02–07USA25/2424/2373 (38–87)/ 65.5 (42–98)Fluoroquinolone-resistant4/1/1/6prior hospitalization, duration of residence in facility, decubitus ulcer, low ambulatory status, fluoroquinolone use, prior metronidazole use
Colodner et al. (2008)Case- control2005.07–10Israel150/15016/3757 (18–92)/ 71 (19–94)Ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin-resistant4/1/1/6Age, sex, prior hospitalization, clinical status (dementia, other neurological disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular disease, etc)
Johnson et al. (2008)Case- control1998–2005USA41/82N/A55.9/55.4Levofloxacin-resistant4/2/2/8Diabetes, congestive heart failure, any catheter use, any levofloxacin use, or any surgical procedure
Lin et al. (2008)Case- control1999.09–12China61/12224/3562.4 (22.1)/ 48.2 (28.2)Ciprofloxacin-resistant3/1/2/6Demographic characteristics, underlying disease, medical devices, antibiotics administration
Lautenbach et al. (2009)Case- control2002–2004USA89/68554/36366 (54–74)/ 61 (49–73) #Levofloxacin-resistant4/1/1/6Age, sex, race, prior hospitalization, comorbidities, prior antimicrobial use
Rooney et al. (2009)Cohort studyd2004–2006UK119/17528/44N/ACiprofloxacin-resistant3/1/2/6MRSA or infection, antibiotic use, rimethoprim use, fluoroquinolone use, UTI, hospitalization, catheter use
Yagci et al. (2009)Cohort studyN/ATurkey32/10412/4151(13)/ 57(16)Ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, or levofloxacin-resistant2/1/2/5Age, sex, race, comorbidities, fluoroquinolone use, hospitalization
Jang et al. (2011)Cohort study2005–2009Korea509/192N/AN/ALevofloxacin-resistant2/1/2/5medical history, underlying disease, status of urinary catheterization
van et al. (2011)Case- control2004–2009The Netherlands51/36918/11971 (54–80)/ 66 (44–78) #Ciprofloxacin-resistant4/1/2/7Age, sex, comorbidities, UTI, hospitalisation, residence in nursing home, antimicrobial use, patient environment characteristics
Smithson et al. (2012)Case- control2008–2011Spain52/101N/A66(16.6)/ 58(16.9)Ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin-resistant4/1/2/7Age, HA-UTI, comorbidities, previous antibiotic treatment
Bailey et al. (2013)Cohort study2009–2011USA39/18313/28N/ALevofloxacin-resistant2/1/2/5Sex, race, comorbidities, home use of antibiotics, surgical procedures
Han et al. (2013)Cohort study2002–2004USA73/32236/18063.2(17.6)/ 61.3(15.1)Levofloxacin-resistant3/1/2/6Age, sex, race, surgical procedures, residence in nursing home, comorbidities
Bedoin et al. (2014)Cohort study2011–2012France60/2840/076.6/70.2Ofloxacin-resistant2/2/3/7Demographic data, administrative data, clinical data, therapeutic data
Kim et al. (2014)Case- control2000–2011Korea26/5619/4058.2 (9.6)/ 57.8 (10.4)Ciprofloxacin-resistant4/1/2/7Age, sex, cause of cirrhosis, Child-Pugh classification, comorbidities, use of antibiotics, hospitalization, mortality
Park et al. (2014)Cohort study2012.04–06Korea67/1620/071 (59–77)/ 67 (50–76) #Ciprofloxacin- resistant3/2/2/7Age, comorbidities, bed-ridden state, use of antibiotics, APN, UTI, isolation of CIP-resistant E. coli in the urine
Jadoon et al. (2015)Cohort study2011–2012Pakistan66/100N/AN/ACiprofloxacin- resistant3/1/3/7Recurrent UTI, history of prior use of ciprofloxacin, diabetes mellitus, immuno-suppressive agent use, history of catheterization
Kratochwill et al. (2015)Cohort study2011–2014USA100/10019/1052.6 (21.7)/ 38.0 (18.4)Ciprofloxacin-resistant4//1/2/7Previous antibiotic use, residence in nursing home, chronic indwelling catheter, recent hospitalization, recurrent UTIs, male sex, age
Saade et al. (2016)Cohort study2000–2013USA428/59041N/A64.9 (25–97)/ 65.0 (44–93)Ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin-resistant4/2/2/8Age, diabetes, history of a culture positive for FQ-resistant E. coli, admission, fluoroquinolone use, other antibiotic use
Mulder et al. (2017)Case- control2000–2006The Netherlands110/97028/18579 (52)/ 73 (65)Ciprofloxacin-resistant4/1/2/7Age, sex, BMI, kidney function, diabetes, SES, fluoroquinolone use, timing of last fluoroquinolone prescription, duration of last prescription
  1. a Cohort and case-control studies were assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The scores are presented as selection/comparability/outcome/total score
  2. # Age, median (IQR), years
  3. Abbreviations: N/A not applicable, AC acute-care, IC intermediate-term-care, LC long-term-care (> 1 month), UTI urinary tract infections, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, APACHE Acute Physiology, and Chronic Health Evaluation, MRSA ethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, HA-UTI healthcare-associated urinary tract infection, APN acute pyelonephritis, BMI body mass index, SES socioeconomic status