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Table 2 Pooled risk factors for QREC infections

From: Risk factors for quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Risk factorsNo. of studiesNo. of case/controlMeta-analysisModelTest of heterogeneity
OR (95% CI)p valueI2p value
Demographic factors
 Age (>  65 years)3144/4572.42 (0.45, 12.97)0.30R86%<  0.001
 Gender (male)181155/44371.41 (1.21, 1.64)<  0.001aF33%0.09
 Race (white)4301/12901.19 (0.57, 2.48)0.65R85%<  0.001
Comorbidities
 Cancer12722/18861.66 (0.96, 2.85)0.07R75%<  0.001
 Hepatic cirrhosis3127/2142.05 (0.99, 4.24)0.05F7%0.34
 Diabetes mellitus181598/629681.62 (1.43, 1.83)<  0.001F24%0.17
 HIV/AIDS3189/10612.89 (0.54, 15.34)0.21R54%0.11
 Cerebrovascular accident4329/8601.60 (0.75, 3.44)0.22R68%0.02
 Cardiovascular disease4351/7561.76 (1.02, 3.04)0.04R69%0.02
 Neurogenic bladder2238/4118.66 (5.68, 13.19)<  0.001F00.55
 Renal dyfunction11768/31172.47 (1.44, 4.23)0.001F78%<  0.001
 Transplantation3164/5042.37 (1.17, 4.79)0.02F19%0.29
 Urinary tract abnormality3269/7801.85 (1.37, 2.49)<  0.001F00.70
 Dementia2202/2515.83 (2.33, 14.60)<  0.001F00.89
 COPD6332/9161.30 (0.81, 2.09)0.27F00.55
 Congestive heart failure293/1835.63 (1.27, 25.10)0.02F00.97
 Autoimmune disease3242/6011.06 (0.20, 5.50)0.95R54%0.12
 Connective tissue disease2128/2840.47 (0.10, 2.19)0.34F00.56
 Gastrointestinal disease2239/4561.19 (0.61, 2.34)0.61R57%0.13
 Neurologic disease2128/2842.80 (1.71, 4.57)<  0.001F00.77
 Hypertension2217/5142.70 (0.94, 7.76)0.07R84%0.01
 Respiratory disease3172/7892.08 (0.56, 7.74)0.27R82%0.004
Present treatments
 Immunosuppressive drugs9499/13282.02 (1.43, 2.85)<  0.001F18%0.28
 Urinary catheter151119/29584.39 (2.81, 6.85)<  0.001R68%<  0.001
 Surgery4303/4561.76 (0.42, 7.43)0.44R90%<  0.001
 Nursing home resident5315/10754.63 (1.62, 13.26)0.004R61%0.03
Prior treatments
 Prior surgery6417/10502.54 (1.28, 5.04)0.008R68%0.008
 Prior quinolones201626/633827.67 (4.79, 12.26)<  0.001R88%<  0.001
 Prior other antibiotics211726/638622.74 (1.92, 3.92)<  0.001R84%<  0.001
 Prior urinary catheter281/3552.01 (0.35,11.48)0.43R74%0.05
 Prior UTI14939/24022.79 (2.32, 3.36)<  0.001R73%<  0.001
 Prior hospitalization161448/621582.06 (1.62, 2.60)<  0.001R53%0.009
Acquisition
 Nosocomial7307/12452.35 (1.47, 3.75)<  0.001R56%0.03
Infection sources
 Urinary tract3137/6360.78 (0.28, 2.19)0.64R81%0.006
 Intra-abdominal2110/5820.88 (0.53, 1.46)0.62F00.95
 Respiratory tract infection280/1601.55 (0.51, 4.66)0.44F00.74
  1. a Statistically significant values (p ≤ 0.05)
  2. Abbreviations: QREC quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli, OR odds ratio, R random effect model, F fixed effect model, HIV/AIDS human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, UTI urinary tract infection