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Table 1 Patient characteristics and outcomes according to their Klebsiella pneumoniae status

From: Clinical impact of endemic NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in intensive care units of the national referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia

 Group 1Group 2Group 3Group 4Group 5p value
22070226337 
Age (years), median (IQR)46 (33–58)49 (33–58)31.5 (25–49)50 (38–58)47 (35.5–62)0.036
Gender (%)     0.533
 Male108 (49.1)35 (50)13 (59.1)35 (55.6)23 (62.2) 
 Female112 (50.9)35 (50)9 (40.9)28 (44.4)14 (37.8) 
Underlying diseases (%)
 Cardiovascular     0.556
  Yes10 (4.5)64 (91.4)1 (4.5)5 (7.9)3 (8.1) 
  No210 (95.5)6 (8.6)21 (95.5)58 (92.1)34 (91.9) 
 Cerebrovascular     0.026
  Yes11 (5.0)2 (2.9)3 (13.6)8 (12.7)5 (13.5) 
  No209 (95.0)68 (97.1)19 (86.4)55 (87.3)32 (86.5) 
 Chronic kidney disease     0.068
  Yes17 (7.7)7 (10.0)01 (1.6)0 
  No203 (92.3)63 (70.0)22 (100)62 (98.4)37 (100.0) 
 Diabetes mellitus     0.138
  Yes12 (5.5)10 (14.3)1 (4.5)6 (9.5)4 (10.8) 
  No208 (94.5)60 (85.7)21 (95.5)57 (90.5)33 (89.2) 
 Malignancy     0.717
  Yes68 (30.9)20 (28.6)4 (18.2)16 (25.4)10 (27.0) 
  No152 (69.1)50 (71.4)18 (81.8)47 (74.6)27 (73.0) 
 Indication for ICU admission (%)     0.005
  Medical64 (29.1)21 (30.0)10 (45.5)23 (36.5)22 (59.5) 
  Surgical156 (70.9)49 (70.0)12 (54.5)40 (63.5)15 (40.5) 
 Referral from (%)     0.378
  Other ward this hospital115 (52.3)36 (51.4)15 (68.2)33 (52.4)23 (62.2) 
  Other hospital40 (18.2)14 (20.0)2 (9.1)11 (17.5)10 (27.0) 
  Directly from Emergency Unit65 (29.5)20 (28.6)5 (22.7)19 (30.2)4 (10.8) 
Antibiotic exposure (pre-ICU admission)
 Any antibiotic (%)163 (74.1)54 (77.1)18 (81.8)44 (69.8)32 (86.5)0.365
 Carbapenem (%)44 (20.0)3 (4.3)7 (31.8)12 (19.0)13 (35.1)< 0.001
SIRS Score, (%)     0.598
 Score > 2200 (91.0)63 (70.0)22 (100.0)59 (93.7)33 (89.2) 
 Score < 220 (9.0)7 (10.0)04 (6.3)4 (10.8) 
qSOFA Score, (%)     0.971
 Score ≥ 2179 (81.4)56 (80.0)17 (77.3)51 (81.0)31 (83.2) 
 Score < 241 (18.6)14 (20.0)5 (22.7)12 (19.0)6 (16.2) 
Procedures (during ICU admission)
Mechanical ventilation used (%)199 (90.5)59 (84.3)20 (90.9)57 (90.5)36 (97.3)0.314
Mechanical ventilation (days)     < 0.001
  ≥ 5 days74 (33.6)30 (42.9)12 (54.5)34 (54.0)32 (86.5) 
  < 5 days146 (66.4)40 (57.1)10 (45.5)29 (46.0)5 (13.5) 
Central venous catheter used (%)193 (87.7)62 (88.6)19 (86.4)53 (84.1)36 (97.3)0.343
Central venous catheter (days)     < 0.001
  ≥ 5 days96 (43.6)40 (57.1)12 (54.5)42 (66.7)33 (89.2) 
  < 5 days124 (56.4)30 (42.9)10 (45.5)21 (33.3)4 (10.8) 
Urinary catheter (%)220 (100.0)70 (100.0)22 (100.0)63 (100.0)37 (100.0)NA
Urinary catheter (days) median (IQR)
  ≥ 5 days112 (50.9)44 (62.9)15 (68.2)46 (73.0)34 (91.9)< 0.001
  < 5 days108 (49.1)26 (37.1)7 (31.8)17 (27.0)3 (8.1) 
Antibiotic therapy (during ICU admission)
 Any antibiotic (%)217 (98.2)70 (100.0)21 (95.5)62 (98.4)36 (100.0)0.474
 Carbapenem (%)110 (49.8)26 (37.1)13 (59.1)29 (46.0)21 (58.3)0.179
Outcomes
 Length of stay (days), median (IQR)4 (2–6)5 (3–9)6 (3–13)7 (4–13)11 (8–20)< 0.001
 Death (%)67 (30.3)17 (24.3)8 (36.4)11 (17.5)16 (44.4)0.054
  1. Abbreviations: ICU Intensive Care Unit; IQR Interquartile range; NS Non-Susceptible; qSOFA quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment; SIRS Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome; S Susceptible
  2. Group 1: No K. pneumoniae on admission and negative for K. pneumoniae during ICU admission
  3. Group 2: Carbapenem-S K. pneumoniae on admission, no carbapenem-NS K. pneumoniae acquisition during ICU admission
  4. Group 3: Carbapenem-NS K. pneumoniae on admission, considered as positive during ICU admission (regardless of results of follow-up cultures)
  5. Group 4: No K. pneumoniae on admission, acquisition of carbapenem-S K. pneumoniae during ICU admission
  6. Group 5: Either no K. pneumoniae or carbapenem-S K. pneumoniae on admission, acquisition of carbapenem-NS K. pneumoniae during ICU admission
  7. Significance was calculated using One-way ANOVA, Pearson Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact Test
  8. A p-value less than 0.01 was considered statistically significant