Skip to main content

Table 1 Study characteristics of the 22 included studies

From: Acquisition of multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales during international travel: a systematic review of clinical and microbiological characteristics and meta-analyses of risk factors

Study Year Country Study period Population characteristic Study sizea Proportion of MDR E. colie in post-travel isolates Sample time (range) before/after travel Median duration of travel in days (range) Follow-up of carriage
Kennedy [21] 2010 Australia January 2008–April 2009 Hospital staff and contacts 102 > 92% E. colib Within 2 weeks before and after 21 (9–135) 6 months
Tängdén [12] 2010 Sweden November 2007–January 2009 Travel clinic 100 100% E. coli (24/24b) Unknown 14 (7–182) 6 months
Weisenberg [22] 2012 United States July 2009–February 2010 Travel clinic 28 E. coli 100% (7/7b) 1 week before/within 1 week after 14 (8–42) None
Östholm-Balkhed* [23, 24] 2013 Sweden September 2008–April 2009 Vaccination clinic 231 90% E. coli (104/116)b 15 (1–114) days/ 3 (0–191) days 16 (4–119) 12 months
Paltansing* [25] 2013 The Netherlands March 2011–September 2011 Travel clinic 370 92% E. coli (146/158)c Immediately before and after 21 (6–90) 6 months
Kuenzli* [26] 2014 Switzerland December 2012–October 2013 Travel clinic 190 98% E. coli (157/161b) Week before/directly after Mean; 18 (5–35) None
von Wintersdorff [27] 2014 The Netherlands November 2010–August 2012 Travel clinic 122 ND Before and immediately after 21 (5–240) None
Angelin* [28] 2015 Sweden April 2010–January 2014 Healthcare students 99 100% E. coli (35/35c) Close to departure/ 1–2 weeks after return 45 (13–365) None
Kantele* [29] 2015 Finland March 2009–February 2010 Travel clinic 430 97% E. coli (94/97b) Before/first (or second) stool after Mean; 19 (4–133) 12 months
Lübbert [30] 2015 Germany May 2013–April 2014 Travel clinic 205 92% E. coli (58/63b) Before/within 1 week after 21 (2–218) 6 months
Ruppé* [31] 2015 France February 2012–April 2013 Vaccination centers 574 93% E. coli (491/526b) Within 1 week before and after 20 (IQR 15–30) 12 months
Bernasconi [32] 2016 Switzerland January 2015–August 2015 Unknown 38 90% E. coli (26/29b) Within 1 week before and after Mean; 15 (8–35) 6 months
Mizuno [33] 2016 Japan September 2012–March 2015 Business travelers 57 ND Before and at time of return > 6 months None
Reuland* [34] 2016 The Netherlands April 2012–April 2013 Vaccination clinic 445 97% E. coli (95/98b) Before/within 2 weeks after Mean; 14 (1–105) None
Vading* [35] 2016 Sweden April 2013–May 2015 Travel clinic 188 97% E. coli (65/67b) Unknown 14 (IQR 8–20) 10 to 26 months
van Hattemd [36] 2016 The Netherlands November 2012–November 2013 Travel clinic 2001 60% E. coli (3/5b) Before/immediately and 1 month after travel 20 (IQR 15–25) 12 months
Arcilla*d [37] 2017 The Netherlands November 2012–November 2013 Travel clinic 2001 88% E. coli (759/859b) Before/immediately and 1 month after travel 20 (IQR 15–25) 12 months
Leangapichart* [38] 2017 France Hajj 2013 & 2014 Hajj pilgrims 218 ND Just before departure and after the Hajj just before return 22 and 24 None
Peirano* [39] 2017 Canada January 2012–July 2014 Travel clinic 116 100% E. coli (124/124b) Before /within 1 week after 10–38 6 months
Bevan [40] 2018 United Kingdom March 2015–June 2016 University and university hospital 18 100% E. coli (16/16) As close to the time of sample submission and after 21, mean 27 Up to 12 months
Nakayama [41] 2018 Japan June 2015–August 2016 Unknown 19 100% E. coli Before and up to 2 weeks after 2–12 days None
Schaumburg* [42] 2019 Germany/the Netherlands October 2016–March 2018 Vaccination center 132 ESBL-producing Enterobacterales Up to 1 week before departure, during travel and up to 1 week after return Mean: 18.7, maximum of six weeks 6 months (137–420 days after return)
  1. Abbreviations: E. coli, Escherichia coli; MDR Multidrug-resistant; ND No data; *, included in the meta-analyses
  2. a Number of travelers who provided pre-travel and post-travel samples
  3. b MDR microorganisms newly acquired during travel
  4. c Data about post-travel samples
  5. d Reported on the same study population, however, van Hattem et al. reported on CPE acquisition, and Arcilla et al. on ESBL-E acquisition
  6. e Including ESBL-producing E. coli and carbapenemase-producing E. coli