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Table 2 Microbiological methods of the 22 included studies

From: Acquisition of multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales during international travel: a systematic review of clinical and microbiological characteristics and meta-analyses of risk factors

Study Enrichment Selective media AST Confirmation of ESBL CPE-targeted isolation method CPE screening in isolates
Kennedy [21] Yes BHI broth with vancomycin disk Yes MacConkey with NAL disk, horse BA with gentamicin, ChromID ESBL VITEK2 Disk-diffusion, PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M No No
Tängdén [12] Yes LB broth with cefotaxime Yes MacConkey with cefotaxime and ceftazidime disks E-test Disk-diffusion No No, only carbapenem AST
Weisenberg [22] No NA Yes MacConkey with cefpodoxime VITEK2 Disk-diffusion, PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M No Yes, PCR for blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, blaNDM
Östholm-Balkhed [23] No NA Yes ChromID ESBL, chromogenic UTI agar with antibiotic disks E-test E-test, PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M No No, only carbapenem AST
Paltansing [25] Yes TSB with cefotaxime and vancomycin Yes ChromID ESBL VITEK2 Disk-diffusion, microarray for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M No Yes, microarray to detect blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, blaNDM-1
Kuenzli [26] Yes TSB with 0.5% sodium chloride Yes ChromID ESBL, MacConkey with ertapenem disk VITEK2 Disk-diffusion, selection of isolates: microarray for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M Yes Yes, modified Hodge, selection of isolates: microarray for blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, blaNDM
von Wintersdorff [27] NA NA NA NA NA PCR for blaCTX-M No Yes, PCR for blaNDM
Angelin [28] No NA Yes ChromID ESBL Disk-diffusion E-test No Yes, disk-diffusion for blaOXA-48 and blaOXA-181 and CT103XL microarray
Kantele [29] No NA Yes ESBL, KPC (CHROMagar) VITEK2 Disk-diffusion Yes No, only AST
Lübbert [30] No NA Yes CHROMagar ESBL, CHROMagar KPC plate Microbroth dilution E-test, PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M Yes Yes, multiplex PCR for blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, blaNDM
Ruppé [31] Yes (1) BHI broth with cefotaxime; (2) BHI broth with ertapenem Yes (1) With and without enrichment: ChromID ESBL agar; without enrichment: bi-valve ESBL agar; (2) Drigalski agar with ertapenem and imipenem E-test Disk-diffusion PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, and blaVEB Yes Yes, PCR for blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, blaNDM
Bernasconi [32] Yes LB broth with a cefuroxime disk Yes BLSE, ChromID ESBL, Supercarba selective plates Microdilution CT103XL microarray No Yes, CT103XL microarray
Mizuno [33] No NA Yes ChromID ESBL MicroScan Neg Combo 6.11 J panel Disk-diffusion No No, only imipenem AST
Reuland [34] Yes TSB with ampicillin Yes EbSA ESBL agar, CLED agar with ciprofloxacin disk VITEK2 Disk-diffusion, PCR for ESBL genes No Yes, ertapenem E-test, PCR for carbapenemase genes followed by sequencing
Vading [35] Yes LB broth with meropenem Yes In-house chromogenic base with cloxacillin and meropenem; without enrichment: ChromID ESBL Disk-diffusion Vitek2, Check-MDR microarray Yes Yes, Check-MDR microarray
van Hattem [36] Yes TSB with vancomycin Yes ChromID ESBL, chromID OXA-48 agar VITEK2, E-test Disk-diffusion, Identibac® AMR08 microarray Yes Yes, Identibac® AMR08 microarray and targeted PCR and DNA sequencing
Arcilla [37] Yes TSB with vancomycin Yes ChromID ESBL VITEK2 Disk-diffusion No No
Leangapichart [38, 43, 44] Yes TSB Yes MacConkey with cefotaxime and Cepacia agar Disk-diffusion PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M No No, only imipenem AST
Peirano [39] No NA Yes ChromID ESBL, chromID-CARBA SMART VITEK2 Disk-diffusion, PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M Yes Partly, carbapenem AST, PCR for blaOXA
Bevan [40] Yes BHI broth with cefpodoxime disk Yes Oxoid ESBL brilliance agar, Oxoid UTI brilliance agar with cefpodoxime disk NP PCR for CTX-M ESBL genes No Yes, WGS and bioinformatics screening
Nakayama [41] No NA Yes CHROMagar ECC with 1 μg/mL cefotaxime Disk diffusion Double-disk synergy test, PCR for ESBL genes No No, only meropenem AST
Schaumburg [42] No NA Yes ChromID-ESBL, chromID-CARBA VITEK2 Double-disk diffusion Yes Yes, modified Hodge test and PCR for blaKPC2–15, blaVIM1–37, blaNDM1–7, blaOXA-48, blaOXA-181
  1. Abbreviations: NAL Nalidixic acid; NA Not applicable; NR Not reported; AST Antimicrobial susceptibility testing; TSB Tryptic soy broth; ESBL Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; KPC Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase; BA Blood agar; LB Luria-Bertani; BHI Brain heart infusion; CLED Cystine lactose electrolyte-deficient medium; SMART Solutions to manage the antimicrobial resistance threat; NP Not performed; WGS Whole-genome sequencing