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Table 2 Microbiological methods of the 22 included studies

From: Acquisition of multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales during international travel: a systematic review of clinical and microbiological characteristics and meta-analyses of risk factors

StudyEnrichmentSelective mediaASTConfirmation of ESBLCPE-targeted isolation methodCPE screening in isolates
Kennedy [21]YesBHI broth with vancomycin diskYesMacConkey with NAL disk, horse BA with gentamicin, ChromID ESBLVITEK2Disk-diffusion, PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-MNoNo
Tängdén [12]YesLB broth with cefotaximeYesMacConkey with cefotaxime and ceftazidime disksE-testDisk-diffusionNoNo, only carbapenem AST
Weisenberg [22]NoNAYesMacConkey with cefpodoximeVITEK2Disk-diffusion, PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-MNoYes, PCR for blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, blaNDM
Östholm-Balkhed [23]NoNAYesChromID ESBL, chromogenic UTI agar with antibiotic disksE-testE-test, PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-MNoNo, only carbapenem AST
Paltansing [25]YesTSB with cefotaxime and vancomycinYesChromID ESBLVITEK2Disk-diffusion, microarray for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-MNoYes, microarray to detect blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, blaNDM-1
Kuenzli [26]YesTSB with 0.5% sodium chlorideYesChromID ESBL, MacConkey with ertapenem diskVITEK2Disk-diffusion, selection of isolates: microarray for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-MYesYes, modified Hodge, selection of isolates: microarray for blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, blaNDM
von Wintersdorff [27]NANANANANAPCR for blaCTX-MNoYes, PCR for blaNDM
Angelin [28]NoNAYesChromID ESBLDisk-diffusionE-testNoYes, disk-diffusion for blaOXA-48 and blaOXA-181 and CT103XL microarray
Kantele [29]NoNAYesESBL, KPC (CHROMagar)VITEK2Disk-diffusionYesNo, only AST
Lübbert [30]NoNAYesCHROMagar ESBL, CHROMagar KPC plateMicrobroth dilutionE-test, PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-MYesYes, multiplex PCR for blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, blaNDM
Ruppé [31]Yes(1) BHI broth with cefotaxime; (2) BHI broth with ertapenemYes(1) With and without enrichment: ChromID ESBL agar; without enrichment: bi-valve ESBL agar; (2) Drigalski agar with ertapenem and imipenem E-testDisk-diffusionPCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, and blaVEBYesYes, PCR for blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, blaNDM
Bernasconi [32]YesLB broth with a cefuroxime diskYesBLSE, ChromID ESBL, Supercarba selective platesMicrodilutionCT103XL microarrayNoYes, CT103XL microarray
Mizuno [33]NoNAYesChromID ESBLMicroScan Neg Combo 6.11 J panelDisk-diffusionNoNo, only imipenem AST
Reuland [34]YesTSB with ampicillinYesEbSA ESBL agar, CLED agar with ciprofloxacin diskVITEK2Disk-diffusion, PCR for ESBL genesNoYes, ertapenem E-test, PCR for carbapenemase genes followed by sequencing
Vading [35]YesLB broth with meropenemYesIn-house chromogenic base with cloxacillin and meropenem; without enrichment: ChromID ESBLDisk-diffusionVitek2, Check-MDR microarrayYesYes, Check-MDR microarray
van Hattem [36]YesTSB with vancomycinYesChromID ESBL, chromID OXA-48 agarVITEK2, E-testDisk-diffusion, Identibac® AMR08 microarrayYesYes, Identibac® AMR08 microarray and targeted PCR and DNA sequencing
Arcilla [37]YesTSB with vancomycinYesChromID ESBLVITEK2Disk-diffusionNoNo
Leangapichart [38, 43, 44]YesTSBYesMacConkey with cefotaxime and Cepacia agarDisk-diffusionPCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-MNoNo, only imipenem AST
Peirano [39]NoNAYesChromID ESBL, chromID-CARBA SMARTVITEK2Disk-diffusion, PCR for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-MYesPartly, carbapenem AST, PCR for blaOXA
Bevan [40]YesBHI broth with cefpodoxime diskYesOxoid ESBL brilliance agar, Oxoid UTI brilliance agar with cefpodoxime diskNPPCR for CTX-M ESBL genesNoYes, WGS and bioinformatics screening
Nakayama [41]NoNAYesCHROMagar ECC with 1 μg/mL cefotaximeDisk diffusionDouble-disk synergy test, PCR for ESBL genesNoNo, only meropenem AST
Schaumburg [42]NoNAYesChromID-ESBL, chromID-CARBAVITEK2Double-disk diffusionYesYes, modified Hodge test and PCR for blaKPC2–15, blaVIM1–37, blaNDM1–7, blaOXA-48, blaOXA-181
  1. Abbreviations: NAL Nalidixic acid; NA Not applicable; NR Not reported; AST Antimicrobial susceptibility testing; TSB Tryptic soy broth; ESBL Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; KPC Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase; BA Blood agar; LB Luria-Bertani; BHI Brain heart infusion; CLED Cystine lactose electrolyte-deficient medium; SMART Solutions to manage the antimicrobial resistance threat; NP Not performed; WGS Whole-genome sequencing