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Table 1 Overall and per-groups analysis of surgical procedure and CS-SSI Characteristics

From: Implementing a combined infection prevention and control with antimicrobial stewardship joint program to prevent caesarean section surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance: a Tanzanian tertiary hospital experience

 Overall (n = 1040)
n (col%)
PRE-Int (n = 467)
n (col%)
POST-Int (n = 573)
n (col%)
p-valueadj-p-value*
CS type   0.0590.170β
 Elective76 (7.3)42 (9.0)34 (5.9)  
 Emergency964 (92.7)425 (91.0)539 (94.1)  
Reason for CS   0.0430.155γ
 CS indication431 (41.4)209 (44.8)222 (38.7)  
 No CS indication606 (58.3)255 (54.6)351 (61.3)  
 Not known3 (0.3)3 (0.6)0  
Operator grade   0.0010.052 γ
 Senior345 (33.1)127 (27.2)218 (38.1)  
 Junior685 (65.9)337 (72.2)348 60.7)  
 Not known10 (1.0)3 (0.6)7 (1.2)  
Skin disinfection   0.0000.001 γ
 Dettol2 (0.2)02 (0.3)  
 Ethanol94 (9.0)90 (19.3)4 (0.7)  
 Povidone/Iodine923 (88.8)366 (78.4)557 (97.2)  
 Not known21 (2.0)11 (2.4)10 (1.7)  
Tipe of CS incision   0.0000.058 γ
Pfannenstiel247 (23.8)82 (17.6)165 (28.8)  
 Midline Vertical737 (70.9)341 (73.0)396 (69.1)  
 Not known56 (5.4)44 (9.4)12 (2.1)  
Material used for skin suture   0.0000.044 γ
 Silk (non-absorbable)693 (66.6)339 (72.6)354 (61.8)  
 Vicryl (absorbable)265 (25.5)91 (19.5)174 (30.4)  
 Not known82 (7.9)37 (7.9)45 (7.9)  
Suture type   0.0000.076 γ
 Interrupted700 (67.3)327 (70.0)373 (65.1)  
 Continuousintradermic and semisubcutaneous260 (26.0)96 (20.6)174 (30.4)  
 Not known70 6.744 (9.4)26 (4.5)  
Pre-Incision Antibiotic Prophylaxis   0.0000.000 γ
 No457 (43.9)451 (96.6)6 (1.0)  
 Yes572 (55.0)10 (2.1)562 (98.1)  
 Not Known11 (1.1)6 (1.3)5 (0.9)  
Timing of Pre-Incision Antibiotic Prophylaxis   0.0170.011 γ
 Appropriate162 (28.3)5 (50)157 (27.9)  
 Not appropriate372 (65)2 (20)370 (65.8)  
 Not known38 (6.7)3 (30)35 (6.3)  
Post-Incysion Antibiotic administration   0.0000.000 γ
 No406 (39.0)4 (0.9)402 (70.2)  
 Yes627 (60.3)459 (98.2)168 (29.3)  
Not Known7 (0.7)4 (0.9)3 (0.5)  
Day of first visit, mean, range (±SD)8.5, 1–38 (3.4)8.5, 2–37 (2.5)8.4, 1–38 (4.0)0.701 
Wound infection   0.0000.001 β
 Yes320 (30.8)225 (48.2)95 (16.6)  
 No720 (69.2)242 (51.8)478 (83.4)  
Wound infection at first visit   0.0370.001 γ
 Yes224 (21.5)166 (73.8)58 (61.1)  
 No742 (71.3)57 (25.3)37 (38.9)  
 Not known2 (0.2)2 (0.9)0  
Type of wound infection   0.0000.045 γ
 Superficial218 (21.0)138 (61.3)80 (84.2)  
 Deep/involving organ and/or spaces85 (8.2)74 (32.9)11 (11.6)  
 Not known17 (1.6)13 (5.8)4 (4.2)  
  1. CS caesarean section, SSI Surgical Site Infections; *Bonferroni adjusted p-value; β α = 0.012; γα = 0.008