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Table 3 Overall and per-groups analysis of microbiological characteristics

From: Implementing a combined infection prevention and control with antimicrobial stewardship joint program to prevent caesarean section surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance: a Tanzanian tertiary hospital experience

 Overall SSI (n = 320)PRE-Int SSI (n = 225)POST-Int SSI (n = 95)p-value
Swab Performed, n (col %)   0.887
 Yes280 (87.5)197 (87.5)83 (87.4) 
 No40 (12.5)28 (12.5)12 (12.6) 
Swab result, n (col %)n = 280n = 197n = 830.001
 No bacterial growth112 (40)91 (45.2)21 (25.3) 
 Bacterial Growth168 (60)106 (53.8)62 (74.7) 
Isolated pathogen, n (col %)n = 168n = 106n = 62< 0.001
 Gram-positive127 (75.6)90 (84.9)37 (59.7) 
 Gram-negative41 (24.4)16 (15.1)25 (40.3) 
Gram positive, n (col %)n = 127n = 90n = 37 
Staphylococcus aureus57 (44.9)43 (40.6)14 (37.9) 
MRSA37 (64.9)34 (79.0)3 (21.4) 
Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species57 (44.9)47 (44.4)10 (27.0) 
Streptococcus A3 (2.4)03 (8.1) 
Enterococcus spp.10 (7.8)010 (27.0) 
Gram negative, n (%)n = 41n = 16n = 25 
Escherichia Coli4 (9.8)1 (6.3)3 (12.0) 
MDROs2 (50.0)1 (100)1 (33.4) 
Proteus mirabilis4 (9.8)3 (18.7)1 (4.0) 
MDROs1 (25.0)1 (33.4)0 
Klebsiella spp.11 (26.8)4 (25.0)7 (28.0) 
MDR0s7 (63.6)4 (100)3 (42.8) 
Pseudomonas aeruginosa6 (14.6)1 (6.3)5 (20.0) 
MDROs4 (66.7)1 (100)3 (60.0) 
Other GRAM-negative16 (39.0)7 (43.7)9 (36.0) 
MDROs7 (43.7)2 (28.6)5 (55.6) 
Total MRSA, n (isolated pathogens %)37 (22)34 (32.0)3 (4.8)< 0.001
Total gram negative MDROs, n (isolated pathogens %)22 (13)9 (8.5)12 (19.3)0.052
  1. MRSA Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MDROs Multidrug Resistant Organisms