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Table 1 Characteristics and antibiotic resistance profile of the Gram–positive methicillin- and multidrug-resistant organisms

From: Poor infection prevention and control standards are associated with environmental contamination with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales and other multidrug-resistant bacteria in Swiss companion animal clinics

Insti-tution Speciesa Representative strain Origin (n=) STb Mec Antibiotic resistance profilec
CLI
(>0.5)
TET
(>2)
RIF
(>0.5)
STR
NAd
FUS
(>1)
PEN
(>0.125)
CHL
(>8)
KAN
(≥64)
SYN
(>2)
VAN
(>2/>4)e
GEN
(>1)
TMP (>4) ERY (>2) CIP (>1) FOX
(screen ≥8)
LZD (>4) MUP (≥256) SMX
(≥512)
Env Empl                     
A S. aureus 18/EPI2716   1 398 A ≤0.12 >16 ≤0.016 16 ≤0.5 >2 8 >64 ≤0.5 ≤1 8 >32 ≤0.25 ≤0.25 16 2 ≤0.5 ≤64
S. aureus 19/EPI0128   1 398 A ≤0.12 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 8 ≤0.5 0.5 8 ≤4 ≤0.5 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 >8 ≤0.25 4 2 ≤0.5 ≤64
S. aureus 19/EPI0127   1 7 A ≤0.12 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 8 ≤0.5 >2 8 ≤4 ≤0.5 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 ≤0.25 ≤0.25 4 2 ≤0.5 ≤64
S. aureus 19/EPI0156   1 45 A ≤0.12 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 8 ≤0.5 ≤0.12 8 ≤4 ≤0.5 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 ≤0.25 ≤0.25 4 2 ≤0.5 ≤64
S. pseud-intermedius 18/EPI2651 1   1338 A >4 >16 ≤0.016 >32 ≤0.5 >2 64 >64 1 ≤1 4 >32 >8 >8 8 ≤1 ≤0.5 512
S. haemolyticus 19/EPI0140 1   30 A 0.5 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 ≤4 ≤0.5 1 ≤4 ≤4 ≤0.5 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 ≤0.25 8 8 ≤1 ≤0.5 128
S. haemolyticus 19/EPI0129 1   68 A 2 8 >0.5 >32 4 >2 ≤4 32 4 ≤1 8 ≤2 1 2 >16 ≤1 ≤0.5 >512
S. epidermidis 19/EPI0130 1   35 A ≤0.12 >16 ≤0.016 >32 >4 1 64 32 ≤0.5 ≤1 8 >32 >8 4 4 ≤1 ≤0.5 256
B S. aureus 18/EPI2714   1 97 A ≤0.12 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 8 ≤0.5 >2 8 ≤4 ≤0.5 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 0.5 0.5 >16 2 ≤0.5 ≤64
S. aureus 18/EPI2723   1 5 A ≤0.12 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 8 ≤0.5 >2 8 ≤4 1 ≤1 ≤1 >32 0.5 ≤0.25 >16 2 ≤0.5 ≤64
S. pseud-intermedius 18/EPI2623 16 1 551 A >4 >16 0.03 >32 ≤0.5 >2 8 >64 1 ≤1 8 >32 >8 >8 8 ≤1 ≤0.5 >512
S. equorum 19/EPI0070 1    A 0.5 >16 ≤0.016 >32 ≤0.5 >2 8 >64 1 2 8 >32 8 0.5 >16 2 ≤0.5 ≤64
M. caseolyticus 19/EPI0068 1   39 D >4 16 ≤0.016 32 4 >2 64 ≤4 ≤0.5 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 >8 ≤0.25 16 ≤1 ≤0.5 ≤64
C S. aureus 18/EPI2724 1 1 225 A >4 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 ≤4 ≤0.5 >2 16 64 1 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 >8 >8 >16 2 ≤0.5 ≤64
S. pseud-intermedius 18/EPI2652 1   1339 A >4 >16 ≤0.016 >32 ≤0.5 >2 ≤4 >64 ≤0.5 ≤1 16 >32 >8 >8 4 ≤1 ≤0.5 >512
S. haemolyticus 19/EPI0101 11   9 A 4 >16 ≤0.016 ≤4 ≤0.5 >2 ≤4 >64 1 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 >8 2 8 ≤1 ≤0.5 >512
S. haemolyticus 19/EPI0069 2   9 A 4 >16 0.03 ≤4 ≤0.5 2 ≤4 >64 1 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 >8 2 8 ≤1 ≤0.5 >512
S. epidermidis 19/EPI0136 1   568 A 4 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 ≤4 >4 0.25 ≤4 ≤4 1 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 ≤0.25 ≤0.25 8 ≤1 ≤0.5 >512
S. epidermidis 19/EPI0109 1   910 A ≤0.12 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 ≤4 ≤0.5 >2 ≤4 ≤4 ≤0.5 2 ≤1 ≤2 >8 ≤0.25 8 ≤1 ≤0.5 ≤64
S. epidermidis 19/EPI0108 1   88 A >4 1 >0.5 >32 >4 2 8 >64 4 ≤1 16 16 0.5 1 >16 2 256 >512
E S. aureus 19/EPI0122 1   22 A ≤0.12 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 ≤4 ≤0.5 >2 8 ≤4 ≤0.5 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 ≤0.25 >8 >16 2 ≤0.5 ≤64
S. haemolyticus 19/EPI0116 1   30 A >4 >16 ≤0.016 ≤4 >4 >2 ≤4 32 ≤0.5 ≤1 4 >32 >8 8 8 ≤1 ≤0.5 256
S. haemolyticus 19/EPI0119 2   42 A >4 >16 ≤0.016 >32 >4 >2 8 >64 1 2 >16 >32 >8 >8 >16 ≤1 ≤0.5 >512
S. haemolyticus 19/EPI0126 1   69 A ≤0.12 1 ≤0.016 >32 ≤0.5 >2 ≤4 >64 ≤0.5 2 >16 ≤2 >8 >8 >16 ≤1 ≤0.5 >512
S. haemolyticus 19/EPI0121 1   69 A ≤0.12 8 ≤0.016 >32 >4 >2 ≤4 >64 ≤0.5 2 >16 ≤2 >8 >8 >16 ≤1 ≤0.5 >512
M. caseolyticus 19/EPI0120 4   38 D ≤0.12 >16 ≤0.016 >32 ≤0.5 >2 ≤4 ≤4 1 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 ≤0.25 ≤0.25 >16 ≤1 1 ≤64
M. caseolyticus 19/EPI0117 1   35 D ≤0.12 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 ≤4 ≤0.5 >2 ≤4 ≤4 1 ≤1 ≤1 4 >8 ≤0.25 >16 ≤1 1 ≤64
M. canis 19/EPI0114 1   69 B 4 ≤0.5 > 0.5 32 ≤0.5 >2 ≤4 32 2 ≤1 4 ≤2 0.5 0.5 >16 ≤1 1 >512
M. canis 19/EPI0118 1   71 B-D 0.25 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 ≤4 2 >2 ≤4 ≤4 1 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 ≤0.25 ≤0.25 16 ≤1 1 ≤64
M. canis 19/EPI0123 1   72 D 0.25 ≤0.5 ≤0.016 ≤4 ≤0.5 2 ≤4 ≤4 1 ≤1 ≤1 ≤2 ≤0.25 ≤0.25 >16 ≤1 1 ≤64
F S. haemolyticus 19/EPI0131 1   9 A 4 ≤0.5 0.03 ≤4 4 >2 ≤4 32 4 ≤1 4 ≤2 ≤0.25 1 >16 ≤1 ≤0.5 >512
S. epidermidis 19/EPI0138 1   88 A ≤0.12 1 ≤0.016 >32 ≤0.5 >2 ≤4 ≤4 ≤0.5 ≤1 ≤1 16 ≤0.25 ≤0.25 8 ≤1 ≤0.5 256
G S. haemolyticus 19/EPI0073 3   49 A ≤0.12 >16 ≤0.016 ≤4 ≤0.5 >2 ≤4 64 ≤0.5 ≤1 4 >32 ≤0.25 >8 16 ≤1 ≤0.5 256
  1. aFor the five S. epidermidis isolates from employees, no data on antibiotic resistance profile or strain typing was available. bSequence types of the coagulase-negative staphylococci were determined for the representative strains. cMIC in bold indicates resistance. The resistance breakpoints presented are those for Staphylococcus spp. from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing [32] except for KAN and SMX for which the breakpoints from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [33] were used. dNo breakpoint was available for STR; an MIC > 32 was tentatively used as resistance breakpoint. eEUCAST breakpoints for vancomycin: for S. aureus > 2, for coagulase-negative staphylococci > 4. Abbreviations: Env environment, Empl employee, ST sequence type, CLI clindamycin, TET tetracycline, RIF rifampicin, STR streptomycin, FUS fusidic acid; PEN, penicillin, CHL chloramphenicol, KAN kanamycin, SYN synercid, VAN vancomycin, GEN gentamicin, TMP trimethoprim, ERY erythromycin, CIP ciprofloxacin, FOX cefoxitin, LZD linezolid, MUP mupirocin, SMX sulfamethoxazole, S. Staphylococcus, M. Macrococcus