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Table 1 Characteristics and antibiotic resistance profile of the Gram–positive methicillin- and multidrug-resistant organisms

From: Poor infection prevention and control standards are associated with environmental contamination with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales and other multidrug-resistant bacteria in Swiss companion animal clinics

Insti-tutionSpeciesaRepresentative strainOrigin (n=)STbMecAntibiotic resistance profilec
CLI
(>0.5)
TET
(>2)
RIF
(>0.5)
STR
NAd
FUS
(>1)
PEN
(>0.125)
CHL
(>8)
KAN
(≥64)
SYN
(>2)
VAN
(>2/>4)e
GEN
(>1)
TMP (>4)ERY (>2)CIP (>1)FOX
(screen ≥8)
LZD (>4)MUP (≥256)SMX
(≥512)
EnvEmpl                    
AS. aureus18/EPI2716 1398A≤0.12>16≤0.01616≤0.5>28>64≤0.5≤18>32≤0.25≤0.25162≤0.5≤64
S. aureus19/EPI0128 1398A≤0.12≤0.5≤0.0168≤0.50.58≤4≤0.5≤1≤1≤2>8≤0.2542≤0.5≤64
S. aureus19/EPI0127 17A≤0.12≤0.5≤0.0168≤0.5>28≤4≤0.5≤1≤1≤2≤0.25≤0.2542≤0.5≤64
S. aureus19/EPI0156 145A≤0.12≤0.5≤0.0168≤0.5≤0.128≤4≤0.5≤1≤1≤2≤0.25≤0.2542≤0.5≤64
S. pseud-intermedius18/EPI26511 1338A>4>16≤0.016>32≤0.5>264>641≤14>32>8>88≤1≤0.5512
S. haemolyticus19/EPI01401 30A0.5≤0.5≤0.016≤4≤0.51≤4≤4≤0.5≤1≤1≤2≤0.2588≤1≤0.5128
S. haemolyticus19/EPI01291 68A28>0.5>324>2≤4324≤18≤212>16≤1≤0.5>512
S. epidermidis19/EPI01301 35A≤0.12>16≤0.016>32>416432≤0.5≤18>32>844≤1≤0.5256
BS. aureus18/EPI2714 197A≤0.12≤0.5≤0.0168≤0.5>28≤4≤0.5≤1≤1≤20.50.5>162≤0.5≤64
S. aureus18/EPI2723 15A≤0.12≤0.5≤0.0168≤0.5>28≤41≤1≤1>320.5≤0.25>162≤0.5≤64
S. pseud-intermedius18/EPI2623161551A>4>160.03>32≤0.5>28>641≤18>32>8>88≤1≤0.5>512
S. equorum19/EPI00701  A0.5>16≤0.016>32≤0.5>28>64128>3280.5>162≤0.5≤64
M. caseolyticus19/EPI00681 39D>416≤0.016324>264≤4≤0.5≤1≤1≤2>8≤0.2516≤1≤0.5≤64
CS. aureus18/EPI272411225A>4≤0.5≤0.016≤4≤0.5>216641≤1≤1≤2>8>8>162≤0.5≤64
S. pseud-intermedius18/EPI26521 1339A>4>16≤0.016>32≤0.5>2≤4>64≤0.5≤116>32>8>84≤1≤0.5>512
S. haemolyticus19/EPI010111 9A4>16≤0.016≤4≤0.5>2≤4>641≤1≤1≤2>828≤1≤0.5>512
S. haemolyticus19/EPI00692 9A4>160.03≤4≤0.52≤4>641≤1≤1≤2>828≤1≤0.5>512
S. epidermidis19/EPI01361 568A4≤0.5≤0.016≤4>40.25≤4≤41≤1≤1≤2≤0.25≤0.258≤1≤0.5>512
S. epidermidis19/EPI01091 910A≤0.12≤0.5≤0.016≤4≤0.5>2≤4≤4≤0.52≤1≤2>8≤0.258≤1≤0.5≤64
S. epidermidis19/EPI01081 88A>41>0.5>32>428>644≤116160.51>162256>512
ES. aureus19/EPI01221 22A≤0.12≤0.5≤0.016≤4≤0.5>28≤4≤0.5≤1≤1≤2≤0.25>8>162≤0.5≤64
S. haemolyticus19/EPI01161 30A>4>16≤0.016≤4>4>2≤432≤0.5≤14>32>888≤1≤0.5256
S. haemolyticus19/EPI01192 42A>4>16≤0.016>32>4>28>6412>16>32>8>8>16≤1≤0.5>512
S. haemolyticus19/EPI01261 69A≤0.121≤0.016>32≤0.5>2≤4>64≤0.52>16≤2>8>8>16≤1≤0.5>512
S. haemolyticus19/EPI01211 69A≤0.128≤0.016>32>4>2≤4>64≤0.52>16≤2>8>8>16≤1≤0.5>512
M. caseolyticus19/EPI01204 38D≤0.12>16≤0.016>32≤0.5>2≤4≤41≤1≤1≤2≤0.25≤0.25>16≤11≤64
M. caseolyticus19/EPI01171 35D≤0.12≤0.5≤0.016≤4≤0.5>2≤4≤41≤1≤14>8≤0.25>16≤11≤64
M. canis19/EPI01141 69B4≤0.5> 0.532≤0.5>2≤4322≤14≤20.50.5>16≤11>512
M. canis19/EPI01181 71B-D0.25≤0.5≤0.016≤42>2≤4≤41≤1≤1≤2≤0.25≤0.2516≤11≤64
M. canis19/EPI01231 72D0.25≤0.5≤0.016≤4≤0.52≤4≤41≤1≤1≤2≤0.25≤0.25>16≤11≤64
FS. haemolyticus19/EPI01311 9A4≤0.50.03≤44>2≤4324≤14≤2≤0.251>16≤1≤0.5>512
S. epidermidis19/EPI01381 88A≤0.121≤0.016>32≤0.5>2≤4≤4≤0.5≤1≤116≤0.25≤0.258≤1≤0.5256
GS. haemolyticus19/EPI00733 49A≤0.12>16≤0.016≤4≤0.5>2≤464≤0.5≤14>32≤0.25>816≤1≤0.5256
  1. aFor the five S. epidermidis isolates from employees, no data on antibiotic resistance profile or strain typing was available. bSequence types of the coagulase-negative staphylococci were determined for the representative strains. cMIC in bold indicates resistance. The resistance breakpoints presented are those for Staphylococcus spp. from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing [32] except for KAN and SMX for which the breakpoints from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [33] were used. dNo breakpoint was available for STR; an MIC > 32 was tentatively used as resistance breakpoint. eEUCAST breakpoints for vancomycin: for S. aureus > 2, for coagulase-negative staphylococci > 4. Abbreviations: Env environment, Empl employee, ST sequence type, CLI clindamycin, TET tetracycline, RIF rifampicin, STR streptomycin, FUS fusidic acid; PEN, penicillin, CHL chloramphenicol, KAN kanamycin, SYN synercid, VAN vancomycin, GEN gentamicin, TMP trimethoprim, ERY erythromycin, CIP ciprofloxacin, FOX cefoxitin, LZD linezolid, MUP mupirocin, SMX sulfamethoxazole, S. Staphylococcus, M. Macrococcus