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Table 4 Results of environmental examinations for multidrug-resistant organisms in Clinics A–C

From: Poor infection prevention and control standards are associated with environmental contamination with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales and other multidrug-resistant bacteria in Swiss companion animal clinics

Area Clinic Aa Clinic Ba Clinic Ca
No. of sampling sitesb MRS ESBL-PE No. of sampling sitesb MRS ESBL-PE CPE Macrococcus spp. No. of sampling sitesb MRS
Waiting area 3 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 1
Consultation rooms 6 0 0 6 5 0 2 1 3 0
ICU 4 2 0 6 5 0 4 0 6 4
Radiology 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 1
Ward 3 0 1 4 1 0 2 0 3 1
Quarantine ward 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 2
Pre-OR area 7 1 0 6 0 0 0 0 6 1
OR 10 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 10 0
Laboratory 4 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 3 1
Endoscopy 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Dental room 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0
Utensilsc 9 0 0 9 3 0 0 0 8 5
Othersd 7 0 0 8 2 1 0 0 4 2
Total no. of sampling sites 61    66      53  
Total no. (%) of positive sampling sites 5 (8) 4 (7) 1 (2) 20 (30) 17 (26) 1 (2) 6 (9)e 1 (2) 17 (32) 17 (32)f
  1. a Results for all included multidrug-resistant organisms are shown (Methicillin-resistant staphylococci, ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales and Macrococcus spp.); missing rows indicate no positive result for this group of multidrug-resistant organisms. Positive results are shown in bold. Details on species, strain and minimal inhibitory concentrations of the isolates are specified in Tables 1 and 2. bDetails on sampling sites are indicated in Additional file 3. cUtensils: transport boxes, transport trolleys, mobile phones / pagers, stethoscopes, thermometers, otoscopes, clippers, ultrasonography devices, scissors / clamps, sharp drops. dOthers: elevator, bath, feeding kitchen, lingerie, staff toilet, pneumatic dispatch system. eIn two sampling sites, two different isolates were found. fIn one sampling site, two different isolates were found. Abbreviations: MRS Methicillin-resistant staphylococci, ESBL-PE Extended spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales, CPE carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales, ICU intensive care unit, OR operating room