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Table 4 Results of environmental examinations for multidrug-resistant organisms in Clinics A–C

From: Poor infection prevention and control standards are associated with environmental contamination with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales and other multidrug-resistant bacteria in Swiss companion animal clinics

AreaClinic AaClinic BaClinic Ca
No. of sampling sitesbMRSESBL-PENo. of sampling sitesbMRSESBL-PECPEMacrococcus spp.No. of sampling sitesbMRS
Waiting area3103000031
Consultation rooms6006502130
ICU4206504064
Radiology3003000011
Ward3014102031
Quarantine ward1003000032
Pre-OR area7106000061
OR1000100000100
Laboratory4004100031
Endoscopy1001000010
Dental room3003000020
Utensilsc9009300085
Othersd7008210042
Total no. of sampling sites61  66    53 
Total no. (%) of positive sampling sites5 (8)4 (7)1 (2)20 (30)17 (26)1 (2)6 (9)e1 (2)17 (32)17 (32)f
  1. a Results for all included multidrug-resistant organisms are shown (Methicillin-resistant staphylococci, ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales and Macrococcus spp.); missing rows indicate no positive result for this group of multidrug-resistant organisms. Positive results are shown in bold. Details on species, strain and minimal inhibitory concentrations of the isolates are specified in Tables 1 and 2. bDetails on sampling sites are indicated in Additional file 3. cUtensils: transport boxes, transport trolleys, mobile phones / pagers, stethoscopes, thermometers, otoscopes, clippers, ultrasonography devices, scissors / clamps, sharp drops. dOthers: elevator, bath, feeding kitchen, lingerie, staff toilet, pneumatic dispatch system. eIn two sampling sites, two different isolates were found. fIn one sampling site, two different isolates were found. Abbreviations: MRS Methicillin-resistant staphylococci, ESBL-PE Extended spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales, CPE carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales, ICU intensive care unit, OR operating room